soil pollution causes
Table of Contents
soil pollution causes –
Soil is a mixture of different types of mineral elements, organic substances, gases and water etc.
elements found in a certain ratio,
but when the ratio in this mixture gets disturbed due to humans or any other reason or such elements get mixed in it.
When soil is contaminated with soil that destroys its structure and quality,
its natural properties are lost.
This is called soil pollution.
Therefore, if such an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of the soil,
which impacts humans and other living beings, reduces the usefulness of the soil or changes its useful properties,
then it is called soil pollution.
CAUSES OF SOIL POLLUTION AND ITS SOURCES
The causes of soil pollution are divided into the following two parts:-
(a) Natural causes.
(B) Human Causes
(A) Natural Causes:-
Following are the natural causes of soil pollution:
Earthquake sometimes causes soil pollution.
Due to earthquake, many incidents like cracks occur at various places, eruption of underground water,
due to which the soil sometimes becomes unsuitable for agricultural work.
(2) Volcanic eruption: –
At the places where volcano erupts, the soil sometimes loses its fertility as a result of volcanic lava, ash etc.
(3) Soil erosion by wind: –
Wind also causes soil erosion and soil pollution.
The fast flowing wind blows away the upper surface of the soil with itself, which reduces the fertility of the soil.
This problem becomes very serious in the areas adjacent to deserts
because in these areas the wind shifts the sand dunes and increases the desert areas.
(4) Heavy rainfall:-
Heavy rainfall also causes soil pollution. When there is heavy rain,
it carries away a part of the soil with its flow,
which creates the problem of soil erosion and a large amount of fertile soil is destroyed.
(5) Fast flow of rivers:-
Fast flow of rivers is also an important cause of soil pollution.
While coming from the hilly areas to the plains, the rivers carry away a large part of the soil with their fast flow,
due to which there is a problem of soil erosion in these areas.
(B) Human Causes:-
Many human reasons are also responsible for soil pollution.
The human causes responsible for soil pollution are described as follows-
(1) Wide irrigation –
Humans have developed means of irrigation to reduce the dependence of agriculture on monsoon and rain.
Excessive use of irrigation means has given rise to problems like alkalinity and waterlogging in the soil.
(2) Use of chemicals in soil –
During modern agricultural work, many types of chemicals are used in the form of fertilizers, pesticides and weed killers.
These chemicals destroy the organic elements found in the soil,
which reduces the fertility of the soil.
(3) Industrial wastes: –
Industrial wastes are also a major cause of soil pollution.
Industrial establishments expel many types of waste materials through water during the production process.
Many types of chemical elements and metal elements are present in these waste materials,
which has a very adverse effect on the soil. This affects the fertility of the soil.
(4) Urban wastes :-
Urban wastes, which include garbage and sewage, are also a major source of soil pollution.
Urban waste also contains many types of pollutants which destroy the fertility of the soil.
(5) Deforestation: –
Forest destruction has adverse effects on the soil.
Removing vegetation cover increases soil erosion.
Elements that increase soil fertility are also obtained from forests.
In the absence of vegetation cover,
the organic matter in the soil gradually reduces due to which the soil gets polluted.
(6) Mining –
The debris from mining is dumped on the nearby land, due to which huge pits of debris are formed.
The debris generated from the excavation of minerals like building stones, iron ore, mica, copper etc.
destroys the fertility of the land.
During the rainy season,
this debris flows far and wide and pollutes the soil.
(7) Radioactive substances: –
Most nuclear tests take place underground.
Therefore, the released radioactive elements enter the land and pollute the land.
EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION
Soil pollution has far-reaching effects on biological communities.
Due to pollution, the fertility of soil decreases and it becomes unsuitable for agricultural purposes.
Following are the effects of soil pollution on humans, plants and microorganisms:
(1) Effect on human being:-
Due to soil pollution, many health related problems arise in humans.
Soil pollutants cause many diseases when they enter the human body through the food chain.
(I) Intestinal diseases:-
various types of food items; For example, by consuming raw vegetables, underground vegetables etc.,
many bacteria and various types of micro-worms enter the human body and these cause various types of diseases in the body;
The parts of human and animal feces present in the soil are the main source of tetanus bacilli,
which give rise to tetanus disease.
(III) Other diseases –
Eggs and larvae of parasitic insects present in the soil, fungi, spores, toxins, chemical substances like DDT.
Pollutants like aldrin and arsenic compounds etc.
cause serious diseases in humans, among which jaundice, goiter formation etc. are the main diseases.
(2) Effect on vegetation:-
Vegetation is greatly affected due to soil pollution.
Due to pollution, the fertility of soil decreases, as a result of which no vegetation is able to grow in it.
(3) Effect on other living-organisms:-
Due to the use of many chemical pesticides, beneficial nitrogenous bacteria, earthworms etc.
found in the soil are destroyed.
Harmful chemicals from polluted soil reach animals through the food chain, which has a serious impact on their health.
(4) Effect on agriculture:-
Agriculture is most affected due to soil pollution.
Soil pollution increases due to the use of many chemical pesticides,
due to which the fertility of the soil decreases and agricultural production decreases due to depletion of nutrients due to soil erosion.
Due to extensive irrigation and use of chemical fertilizers in large quantities,
salinity in the soil increases and due to excess of many unwanted minerals,
the fertility of the soil decreases.
MEASURES TO CONTROL SOIL POLLUTION
(1) Soil conservation:-
Soil conservation is very important to prevent soil erosion.
Comprehensive measures should be taken for soil conservation.
These measures include ban on cutting of trees and uncontrolled grazing of animals,
Crop rotation, proper irrigation, flood control etc. are important.
(2) Disposal of solid wastes:-
For disposal of solid wastes.
The following measures may be useful
(i) Garbage should be dumped in pits away from human habitation for leveling.
(ii) Garbage should be used in electricity generation.
(iii) Garbage can be collected in pits and decomposed to make organic manure.
(iv) Garbage can also be reused through the process of recycling. paper in it,
Pieces of glass, pieces of iron, plastic etc. can be reused by changing their form.
(v) Wastes are also disposed of through the process of incineration.
In this, wastes are disposed of by burning,
but there is a possibility of air pollution due to the method of incineration.
(3) Spraying of poisonous pesticides on crops should be done judiciously.
(4) D.D.T. Use should be restricted.
(5) Before irrigation and using fertilizers, soil and water should be tested.
(6) Use of compost and green manuring should be given preference instead of chemical fertilizers.
(7) Proper arrangements should be made for drainage of water in the fields.
(8) Trees should be planted on the edges of fields and sloping lands.
(9) To avoid land pollution caused by radioactive substances,
efforts should be made at the international level to immediately stop underground nuclear tests.
There should be a ban on burying radioactive wastes in the ground.
(10) Use of plastic bags should be banned.
(11) Training on use of fertilizers and pesticides/weedicides will be given to farmers on TV.
Should be given through newspaper or radio.
Preventing land pollution is an important need today,
because food, beverages, raw materials,
Food, water and all other types of materials depend on the quality of soil.