Cold war wars
Table of Contents
Cold war wars
Meaning of Cold War:-
Cold War is a situation in which war-like tension persists between nations.
In this, every nation keeps trying to humiliate and weaken each other.
In this, there is no war with bombs or weapons,
but the war of words is so intense that it can lead to armed war at any time.
After the Second World War, the world clearly divided into two groups.
On one side were the United States, Britain and the countries of Western Europe and on the other side were Russia and the communist countries of Eastern Europe.
The growing conflict and tense relationship between these two groups is called the Cold War.
(1) Division of word into two groups:-
After the Second World War
Russia emerged as a very big power after America.
In 1949 he also made the atomic bomb. There was a big difference in the views of Russia and America.
Where America was a capitalist country, Russia was communist.
Britain, America, France etc Were afraid of communism.
Because, the growth of communist ideology would have put the governments of their countries in trouble.
Therefore, they started trying to ensure that Russia’s power should not be allowed to grow at any cost because the growth of Russia’s power meant the spread of communist ideology.
On the other hand, Russia was opposed to capitalism.
Therefore, he became engaged in stopping capitalism and spreading communism both directly and indirectly.
In this way the world got divided into two groups.
Capitalist faction and communist faction.
America became the leader of the first and Russia became the leader of the second.
Both were afraid of each other.
Therefore, both of them started strengthening their respective powers.
This became the main reason for the Cold War.
(2) Dependence of developing and backward nations on any one groups:-
After the II World War, many countries of Asia and Africa became independent.
Years of subjugation had made them so economically weak that they were unable to rebuild themselves.
They had to take help from some country or the other.
Either America or Russia could have provided such assistance.
America adopted the policy that by providing economic assistance to those countries where communism had not spread,
they should be saved from the influence of communism and brought within its sphere of influence so that a wider market could be found for the consumption of American goods.
On the other hand, Soviet Russia also started providing economic assistance to developing and backward countries so that they do not come under the influence of America.
In this way, the economic compulsion of backward and developing countries also gave support to the Cold War.
(3) Role of Soviet Union:-
Second World War
The Soviet Union had suffered a lot after.
He decided to make every possible effort to make himself a powerful nation.
He established puppet governments in his bordering Eastern European countries and tried to keep the defeated nations weak.
He also started taking indirect action for the spread of communism in other countries.
Gradually the Soviet Union gained a huge sphere of influence where it could spread communism.
Within a few days communism spread in many countries of Eastern Europe.
The United States also continued efforts to limit the growing influence of the Soviet Union.
In this way, the spread of communism after World War II also encouraged the Cold War.
(4) Differences between Russia and America:-
After World War II
Later, due to certain reasons, differences between Soviet Russia and America became complex.
The differences between the two became more extreme on questions like Germany, disarmament, recognition of Communist China, Korean War etc.
(5) Doubt on neutral nations:-
Many like India
The countries which were in favor of the policy of neutrality and wanted to establish friendly relations with all the countries including Russia were also viewed with suspicion by America and its allies.
(6) Rise of states ruled by the communist party:-
America, Britain and other countries of Western Europe also became suspicious with the establishment of communist governments in countries like Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia etc.
Therefore, they were ready to do anything to stop communism.
(7) Weakness of the United Nations:
The United Nations proved unsuccessful in removing fear and distrust towards each other from the minds of the countries of both the communist and capitalist groups, which created an atmosphere of war in the world today.
Results of Cold War
Formation of military treaties or military groups:-
America spread a network of military organizations all over the world around the communist world.
He wants to surround Russia from all sides, so that in case of war, he can easily defeat it.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was established in 1945 to protect against the Soviet Union.
Its members were – United States, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Portugal, Britain, France, Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg.
Later Türkiye, Greece, Federal Republic of Germany also became its members.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was established in 1954.
Its members were – United States, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines and Pakistan.
In 1955, the Baghdad Pact was signed between Great Britain, Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Pakistan.
Russia also did not remain silent.
He also made the Warsaw Pact with the communist countries of Europe – Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria against the alliances of the capitalist countries.
Then he made a treaty of friendship and mutual assistance with the German Republic.
As a result of the Cold War, the world got divided into two big camps due to many differences.
Competition in manufacturing of weapons:-
Both America and Russia called war bad and talked about disarmament,
but both never trusted each other or each other’s allies and kept arming themselves with modern weapons.
Atomic bomb can destroy world civilization, yet after America, Russia also made atomic bomb.
Today Britain, France and China also have nuclear bombs.
Immense money is being spent in capitalist and communist countries also to develop weapons.
It is because of these weapons that world peace is in danger today.
After the disintegration of Soviet Russia, it is now rebuilding itself in a new way on the democratic system.
A new era has begun in the history of the entire world.
Importance of arms race and nuclear power:-
Two atomic bombs were used by the United States against Japan in the final days of World War II.
We have already studied this in the previous chapter.
After this great war, America was the only country to make atomic bombs for almost four years.
In 1949, the Soviet Union also tested an atomic bomb.
Within a few years, many countries developed such nuclear weapons, which are a thousand times more destructive than the bombs dropped on Japan, which are called hydrogen bombs.
The mere testing of this bomb posed many serious threats to life.
Hence movements arose in all parts of the world.
Along with nuclear bombs and other weapons, new bombs, submarines and missiles were also created.
If these resources are spent in peaceful activities, then the lives of crores of people suffering from deprivation and poverty all over the world can be made happy.
In many newly independent nations of Asia and Africa, India, China, Burma, Indonesia, Malaya, Ghana, (Africa) Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, national movements took place and new independent nations emerged.
These countries started following the policy of remaining independent from any military group.
The rise of these states played an important role in reducing the intensity of the Cold War and creating an environment of peace.
End of cold war –
Due to the decline in the power of one of the two superpowers (America and Soviet Russia), Russia, America is left alone as a superpower and that too is facing the problems of severe economic recession these days. Therefore, the fear of cold war on the world has almost ended.
( Cold war wars )
( Cold war wars )
( Cold war wars )