Disaster management project
Table of Contents
Disaster management project –
Disaster means –
an adverse situation which affects the physical and social factors of humans and causes great disruption in the normal lifestyle.
The environment is deteriorating due to human activities, which is creating imbalance in the environment, which leads to many disasters.
Type of disaster –
These disasters are of two types:-
(1) Natural disasters-
The obstacles that arise due to disruption of natural balance are called natural disasters.
These disasters can originate from the atmosphere or from within the earth.
Due to this, human existence is in danger.
There are different forms of natural disasters:-
|4. cold wave
|6. Heat wave
(2) Man-made disasters –
Human beings do many activities for their comfort and convenience.
Some of these wars, riots, industrial crises etc. are forms of man-made disasters.
Man has destroyed forests on a large scale.
Due to which ecological imbalance arose.
There have been problems like famine, flood etc.
Due to leakage of water the area of marshy land increases.
Many man-made actions lead to natural disasters.
Like nuclear testing, mining and construction work cause earthquakes.
disaster management –
Disaster management is the process of proper adjustment between nature and humans.
This is the way to control disasters.
Due to the unique geographical location and geothermal characteristics of the Indian subcontinent, this region is considered to be the most sensitive region of the world from the point of view of natural disasters.
The year 1990-1999 has been celebrated as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.
Government efforts towards disaster management:-
Many efforts have been made at the national, state and other levels to reduce the ill effects of disasters and deal with the ill effects of disasters.
(1) Higher level committee for disaster management-
five sub-groups were formed under it. These were disasters resulting from water and climate related disasters, geological hazards, chemical/industrial/accidents.
(2) National Disaster Management Committee-
National Management Committee is also constituted under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister of the Government of India.
It also includes representatives of the National Disaster Management Center and political parties of the states.
(3) Regarding increasing the disaster management capacity the United Nations-
Under this, a program is conducted under the Government of India and the United Nations Development Programme, whose objective is to reduce disaster management at the national level and in the most at-risk areas of the country, keeping in mind the communities and women.
Suggest ways to reduce side effects.
(4) Risk Assessment-
With the initiative of the Ministry of Urban Development, an atlas giving risk related information about the whole of India was prepared in 1994-97.
(5) Evaluation of the sensitivity of informants-
In this, information has been given on the scale of 1: 2.5 about the places prone to earthquake, sea storm and flood etc. in 28 states and 7 union territories.
(1) Disaster warning system
(2) Monitoring and impact assessment of natural disasters through space technology.
(3) Information technology strengthening
(4) Human resource development
Rehabilitation And Resettlement Of People
Removing the people of the society from their place of residence and settling them somewhere else is called resettlement and rehabilitation.
Resettlement of people may occur due to natural disasters, human activities.
(1) Resettlement and rehabilitation due to natural disasters:-
People have to be displaced due to natural disasters like earthquake, volcano, soil erosion, landslide, flood, drought etc.
Due to increasing industries and decreasing forests in India, situation of drought and flood is arising at some places due to which thousands of people live the life of refugees.
After the disaster ends, most of the displaced families return to their original place.
(2) Restoration and rehabilitation due to man-made activities:-
Resettlement and rehabilitation of people due to man-made activities can happen due to the following reasons:-
(1) During wartime, people from border villages are resettled elsewhere.
(ii) When communal violence occurs, minorities migrate to safe places.
(ii) During industrialization, people are resettled to other places.
(iv) While building a railway or a national highway, the people living in the acquired land are relocated.
(v) People in the construction area of dams and areas potentially affected by their submergence are resettled elsewhere.
People displaced due to the above reasons return to their original places after peace, but in the last three, people have to settle elsewhere permanently.
Therefore, project displacement and rehabilitation impacts the environment and people in various ways, such as:
(1) By settling settlements in new areas, their cultural heritage is destroyed. ,
ii) There is damage to the soil, vegetation and other organisms of the project site.
(iii) The environment where displaced families are settled is adversely affected.
(iv) Employment problem arises due to settlement in new places.
Decline in forest, agricultural and marine productivity and its impact on the economy: –
Forest is an important self-renewable resource.
A normal tree gets a profit of about Rs 22 lakh in its entire lifetime, while this profit does not include the wood, fruits, medicines, bark, flowers etc. obtained from that tree.
About 500 types of important woods are obtained from Indian forests.
Apart from this, sandalwood, beedi leaves, lac, gum, honey, silk, catechu, chironji, quinine, cinnamon, colors and many other types of herbs are available.
About one crore people in the country are directly or indirectly dependent on forests for their livelihood.
Apart from this, the greenery of forests enhances the natural beauty which promotes tourism and increases the national income.
Lakhs of people are also employed in many forest based industries like furniture industry, match industry, rubber, reetha, herbs, medicines etc.
Therefore, if there is destruction of forests through mines, dams or wood cutting, it has a direct impact on people’s life and related industries, which impacts the economy.
The development of agriculture has promoted means of transport, urbanization, industry, communication and other activities,
but the result of all this is that the need for land for all these activities has increased.
The mentality of developing agriculture as an industry considered forests as the best area for agricultural production, which is completely unfair.
Due to continuous intensive farming, the productivity of the soil is decreasing and the quality and production of crops is decreasing.
Due to this, its impact on the economy is also clearly visible.
Sea water pollution and depletion of marine animals and plants can have a negative impact on the economy.
Sea water pollution is affecting the living creatures found in the sea, especially the livelihood of fishermen.
Similarly, coral reefs are on the verge of extinction.
Coral reefs are the main source of income for coastal people.
These are in great demand in the international market.
Thus, decline in marine productivity will have a negative impact on the economy.
( Disaster management project )
( Disaster management project )