Water pollution effects
Table of Contents
Water pollution effects –
Meaning and Definition of Water Pollution –
Water has certain physical, chemical and biological properties,
hence any change in these characteristics of water has a harmful effect on animals and plants.
Is called pollution.
In other words, the change that occurs in the natural form of water
due to the mixing of any external soluble or insoluble substances in water.
It is called water pollution.
It is also called polluted water.
According to the World Health Organization,
“Water becomes contaminated due to the dissolution of unwanted substances originating from natural or other sources
and it becomes fatal for living organisms due to toxicity and
less than normal level of oxygen and helps in spreading infectious diseases.” Is.”
CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION AND IT’S SOURCES –
There are two types of causes/sources of water pollution-
(a) Natural causes
(B) Human causes
(a) Natural Causes/Sources :-
When gases or dust particles in the air mix with rain water,when snow melts, various salts dissolve in it,
when alkaline substances in the soil dissolve, animal remains, rotting of trees, plants and animals and water.
Mixing of water or organic substances in water are all natural causes of water pollution.
(B) Human Causes/Sources :-
Due to various human activities, the pollution that occurs due to mixing of waste materials in various water sources like lakes, rivers, ponds etc.
comes under human sources of water pollution.
The following are prominent among them:-
1. Industrial wastes:-
In the water of organic matter coming out of factories are immersed which increases the impurity of water.
Jute spinning, leather dyeing and cleaning, liquor, paper manufacturing and mineral chemistries, drug manufacturing units, etc.,
cause pollution on a large scale in nearby rivers and ponds and also pollute the environment.
Soaps and detergents are used in cleaning utensils, floors and clothes in homes and hotels.
They also carry away the cleaned sludge and mix with the clean water, contaminating it and the water becomes polluted.
The excreta and urine discharged from domestic and public toilets are discharged into rivers and reservoirs and the water gets polluted.
4. Disposal of wastes:-
Garbage (plastic bags, bottles etc.) is generated in the city/village from construction of houses, buildings, factories,
various packing related items, which is disposed at nearby places.
There the garbage remains lying on the roads.
Such garbage flows with rain water and reaches rivers and reservoirs.
Water gets polluted by such substances for a long time.
5. Mixture of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and herbicides in pure water:-
Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, disease killers and herbicides are used to increase agricultural production.
Rain water washes away these substances and transports them to clean water reservoirs.
When these substances dissolve in water in large quantities, the water becomes polluted.
D.D.T insecticide is made from the elements arsenic, mercury, lead, chlorine, fluorine and phosphorus.
These elements not only destroy pests or diseases,
but also have harmful effects when they reach the human body.
When it enters the body of fishes, their reproductive capacity is greatly reduced.
Due to this, there is calcium deficiency in birds and their eggs break before they mature.
6. Oil spill:-
Leakage of petroleum products is a major cause of sea water pollution.
Import and export of petrol is done by tankers through sea routes.
Sea water gets polluted due to leakage from these tankers or due to accidents and sinking of ships.
Oil keeps floating on the surface of water, due to which the organisms living in water have difficulty in breathing.
7. Disposal of radioactive substances in water:-
Water is polluted on a large scale due to radiation of radioactive substances and immersion of toxic containers in the sea.
Heavy water (D₂O) is used as a coolant in nuclear power plants,
due to which the waste water released becomes completely toxic.
When this contaminated water is poured into clean water,
it becomes so contaminated that it becomes unfit for drinking and survival of aquatic organisms.
Now even nuclear bombs are being tested in the depths of the oceans.
Due to this, the risk of radioactive pollution in water has further increased.
8. Water pollution by dam construction:-
Construction of dams in the river routes creates obstruction in the flow of the river.
Due to dams the self-purifying capacity of water decreases.
Due to evaporation of water collected in reservoirs, salinity also increases,
due to lack of flow, pollution in rivers increases,
this is an act done against nature.
Thus we indirectly help in water pollution.
9. Religious belief:-
Religious beliefs and rituals also increase water pollution.
Contribute to a great extent.
Taking a holy dip or bathing in rivers, ponds, lakes, oceans and reservoirs and immersing bones is considered sacred and necessary from the religious point of view.
Burnt and semi-burnt dead bodies and corpses are also floated in the rivers.
This pollutes the water.
In India, there are holy cities situated on the banks of rivers like Haridwar, Allahabad, Gaya, Varanasi etc.,
where people having faith in Hindu culture immerse the ashes of their deceased relatives in Ganga or other rivers.
The practice of cremating dead bodies on the banks of Ganga has also been going on for centuries.
The ashes and bones of burnt wood are immersed in the Ganga and rivers.
Due to this the water of rivers is continuously getting polluted.
EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION
Water is the first consumer item of living beings.
Water is used in many forms in biological and inorganic activities.
It is helpful for the successful operation and development of many resources.
Today, unfortunately in all countries, water bodies have
become the medium for disposal of garbage,urban and industrial waste and toxic substances.
Like other pollution, water pollution has also taken the form of a serious problem in today’s era.
Various ill effects of water pollution are as follows-
(a) Effect on Aquatic Life –
Different types of water sources, such as rivers, ponds, ponds, lakes, are a complete ecological system.
These include many types of animals and plants
which maintain their harmony with inorganic components.
All biological components together form a food chain.
Due to water being polluted in various ways, flora and fauna are immediately affected.
Due to which there is adverse effect on aquatic plants and animals.
A detailed description of the effects of water pollution on plants and animals is as follows: –
(1) Effect on vegetation: –
Water pollution has the following effects on plants.
1. Due to the presence of plant nutrients in water polluted by agricultural effluents, algae etc.
grow more, which leads to rapid growth of microorganisms, which reduce aquatic O₂.
In such circumstances most of the plants get destroyed.
2. If water pollution is caused by sewage, then sewage fungus of different colors spreads on the upper surface of the water,
in which community of different types of organisms are found, such as fungi, bacteria, algae, mucor and moss. And so on.
These interfere with the growth of other plant species.
3. Due to the presence of feces and algae in polluted water,
sunlight is not able to reach inside the water, as a result,
the process of photosynthesis in aquatic plants gets disrupted.
4. Due to water pollution, the temperature of water increases due to which plants dry up and die due to lack of sap attraction.
5. Photosynthesis does not occur smoothly in plants found in water polluted by pesticides like DDT and other pesticides.
(2) Effect on animals:-
Due to the vegetation found in polluted water getting polluted,
it has a harmful effect on all the animals present in the water ecology.
Some of these effects are as follows-
1. There is severe lack of oxygen in polluted water
due to which aquatic animals start dying due to lack of oxygen.
2. In severely polluted water,
all the animals for which clean water is necessary get destroyed.
Many types of harmful bacteria and protozoa are found in such water.
3. Discharge of polluted water discharged from industrial units into rivers leads to growth of algae,
which increases the demand for oxygen for respiration and has the greatest adverse effect on aquatic animals, especially fish.
4. Immersion of sewage and effluents in water increases the amount of chemical substances like sulphate, nitrate and phosphorus etc.
due to which special types of flora start growing in the nearby rivers, lakes and ponds.
Gradually the reservoirs start drying up and the animals found in them disappear.
5. To achieve maximum production under intensive agriculture, artificial fertilizers, medicines,
pesticides, pesticides and organic fertilizers are used which enter the water bodies
through water and affect the ecosystem of organisms in the land and hydrosphere.
They distort the water and cause depletion of water.
6. Due to oily pollution, aquatic animals found in the seas, especially fishes and water birds, are mainly affected.
(b) Effect on Human Beings-
Polluted water not only affects aquatic animals
but humans also cannot remain without being affected by it
because water is a part of the human environment.
The effect of polluted water on human health can be studied as follows.
(1) By drinking water:-
Water is a good carrier of certain types of germs.
Various types of germs are found in polluted water, drinking
which causes spread of many diseases which are as follows:-
(i) Bacteria –
Pathogenic bacteria spread diseases like cholera, typhoid, diarrhea and dysentery in humans.
(ii) Virus –
Diseases like polio, hepatitis, jaundice etc. are spread by viruses.
It causes stomach and intestinal diseases, diarrhea, liver etc. in humans.
(2) By contact with water:-
Many types of microorganisms and parasites are found in polluted water of water sources.
These parasites enter the body of humans and animals
by piercing their skin while using polluted water for bathing, washing, cleaning clothes and
other works, causing many types of diseases.
(3) By chemical substances present in water –
The chemical substances present in polluted water have the following effects on human health: –
1. Water containing excess ferrous bicarbonate causes indigestion.
2. Excessive amount of fluoride causes harm to teeth instead of benefit.
3. Excess of nitrate and nitrite present in water reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin.
4. Excess of mercury in drinking water causes deformities in humans.
(c) Other Effects:
Other effects caused by polluted water are as follows-
1. Many types of microorganisms like algae etc.
are present in polluted water due to which the color of water changes which makes it unpleasant to drink.
2. When water is polluted by chemical fertilizers,
there is excessive growth of water hyacinth and algae due to which water sources gradually get destroyed.
3. Due to ammonia (NH2) and hydrogen sulphide (H₂S) dissolved in water,
unpleasant odor and taste occurs in it.
4. Acid polluted water causes corrosion of metal pipes and utensils.
MEASURES TO CONTROL WATER POLLUTION
Our primary goal should be to protect water from pollution
because water is a very important substance,
in the absence of which humans and flora cannot survive.
The following measures can be taken to protect water from pollution:
1. Water containing chemicals and dirty waste from industries should not be discharged into rivers, seas, canals, lakes etc. without treatment.
2. Industries should be asked to set up such plants through
which they treat polluted water and discharge it into water bodies.
3. Sewer and sewage water should not be directly discharged into rivers etc.
and dirty water should be collected and cleaned with the help of purification plants and used for irrigation of fields and other uses.
4. While purifying water, medicines should be used in limited quantities and regularly and
no element or chemical should be used in the water purification process which has adverse effects on human health.
5. Electric crematoriums or mortuaries should be constructed to burn dead bodies.
6. Arrangements should be made for treatment of industrial wastes.
There should be a plan to strictly enforce statutory rules against industrial units that do not do so.
7. Awareness should be created among the general public to prevent water pollution.
Water conservation measures should be widely publicized through all types of media.
8. There should be a ban on misuse of clean water.
9. Such organisms and plants should be developed in water which help in purifying water.
10. The effect of water pollution can also be reduced by encouraging tree plantation in the catchment areas of rivers.
11. To prevent pollution caused by sewage disposal,
help should be taken from voluntary organizations like Sulabh International.
The amount of water pollution can be reduced by building accessible toilets.
( Water pollution effects )
( Water pollution effects )