Table of Contents
Population explosion –
When the pace of population growth becomes very rapid,
such a situation arises that the resources available in the country become inadequate for the population of the country,
such a situation is called population explosion.
On the basis of comparison of birth rate and death rate.
Population explosion is estimated.
When the birth rate comparatively exceeds the death rate,
then the pace of population growth becomes extremely rapid.
Such a situation is called population explosion.
Population Explosion in India
India is currently going through a phase of population explosion.
India’s population has doubled and a half in the 44 years from 1947 AD to 1991 AD.
India’s population increased by only 1.3 crore in the first 20 years of this century.
The population of India in 1921 AD was 25.12 crores,
which increased to 54.79 crores in 1971 AD and to 121.01 crores according to the provisional figures of 2011 AD census.
It is clear that India’s population has increased very rapidly in recent years.
According to the demographic transition theory,
three stages of population growth are found.
(1) In the first situation both the birth and death rates are high.
(2) In the second situation the death rate decreases but the birth rate continues to increase.
(3) In the third stage, both the birth rate and death rate decrease,
resulting in a rapid decline in population growth.
In 1921 AD, the birth rate in India was 48.1 and the death rate was 42.6 per thousand. In 1971,
this rate increased to 41.1 and 18.9 per thousand respectively.
It is clear that in these years the death rate had decreased compared to the birth rate,
due to which the population increased rapidly.
A decline in the birth rate has also been seen in the years after 1971 AD.
According to the provisional data of 2011 census,
the birth rate was 17 and the death rate was 8.7 per thousand.
India can overcome the situation of population explosion only by reducing the birth rate.
Reasons for population explosion
It is clear from the study of the trends of birth rate and death rate that the main reason for the increase in population in India is the high birth rate.
The following reasons are responsible for the high birth rate in India:-
(1) Compulsory marriage:-
In India, marriage is considered an essential sacrament from social and religious point of view.
Marriage is considered necessary for procreation.
Marrying and having children is considered essential for every person here.
(2) Child marriage:-
And with the spread of education this practice has reduced somewhat.
But it still exists in the country. In our country, except in educated families,
girls are generally married before the age of fifteen.
Due to which their reproductive period is longer,
due to which they also give birth to more children.
(3) Religious and social superstitions:-
Indian people consider children as a divine gift and do not consider it right to interfere in them in any way.
As a result the birth rate remains high.
(4) Joint Family System:-
In the joint family system in India, the economic responsibility of the family rests jointly on all the members.
Therefore, people lack a sense of responsibility and they keep having children indiscriminately.
A large part of India’s population consists of poor people.
A poor person hopes that his children will increase his income by working with him.
(6) Lack of birth control:-
The use of birth control methods in India is limited.
The main reasons for this are ignorance and cost of resources.
Due to lack of these measures,
the fertility rate in our country is high,
which is the main reason for population growth.
(7) Decreasing death rate:-
Death rate is decreasing in the country due to many reasons.
Due to decrease in death rate the average age of people increases.
Following are the main reasons for decline in mortality rate in India:-
1. Increase in health related facilities-
Due to gradual increase in medical and health related facilities,
the death rate has decreased.
Awareness about the health of babies and mothers has reduced the infant mortality rate.
2. Education among women:-
As a result of the spread of education among women,
the death rate has decreased due to proper care of the health of their babies.
3. Increase in minimum marriage age:-
Due to child marriage earlier the mortality rate of both infant and mother was high.
Their mortality rate has decreased due to increase in the age of marriage.
4.Reduction in famines and epidemics :-
People have not had to face severe famine and epidemics in the country for the last several decades.
Due to which the death rate has decreased.
5. Other reasons:-
Apart from these reasons, some other reasons are also responsible for population growth.
1. Due to the hot climate, the fertility of Indian women is high.
2. Lack of education promotes principles like “Doodho Nahao, Puto Phalon”, which are responsible for the increase in birth rate.
3. Many times the population also increases due to infiltration of large numbers of people from neighboring countries in the form of refugees or unauthorized.
Consequences of Population Explosion
Following are the consequences of population explosion:-
(1) In agriculture sector:-
As a result of population growth, the division of land in the agricultural sector has started increasing.
Obstacles arise in improved farming in agricultural land.
(2) Problem of food grains:-
Due to increase in population there is shortage of food grains.
Most of the production in the agricultural sector comes in the form of food grains.
Due to which the production of other agricultural products which can be used commercially is reduced.
(3) Employment problem:-
Due to excess population, there is lack of employment.
More than three crore people are unemployed in India.
(4) Per capita income:-
Due to increase in population, there is no significant increase in per capita income.
Although the national income has increased beyond expectations.
(5)Problems of home, health and education sector :-
Due to lack of growth in housing, health and education sectors as per the rate of population growth, basic needs decrease.
(6) Reduction in consumer goods:-
Due to population growth there is shortage of consumer goods.
Due to increase in demand, prices start increasing.
The value of development plans starts increasing.
Due to which the economic condition of the common people is affected.
(7) Other problems:-
Many social problems start arising due to increase in unemployment and increase in inflation due to population growth.
Criminal activities like theft, robbery, adultery start increasing.
Population growth also hinders the economic development of the country.
Population pressure on agricultural land is increasing.
Due to which agricultural land starts decreasing.
Providing means of transportation and communication for the increasing population is a big problem.
The pressure of population growth on energy sources is also increasing.
Remedies of Population Explosion
The problems of population explosion can be solved by the following two measures:-
(1) By controlling the birth rate
(2) By economic development of the country
(1) By controlling the birth rate:-
To stop population growth, it is very important to control the birth rate.
Following measures can be adopted to control birth rate
1. Spread of education:-
– To stop population growth, it is very important to educate people.
Educated people have a greater tendency to have limited families.
2. Increase in the age of marriage:-
To stop the rapid population growth, increasing the age of marriage is a necessary measure.
At present the minimum age for marriage is 21 years for boys and 18 years for girls.
It is estimated that if the marriage age of girls is increased to 20 years, the birth rate can reduce significantly.
3. Family Welfare Programme:-
To stop the increasing population, there is a need to extend family welfare programs to most of the people.
For this, these programs should be taken to every village and every person through media.
In rural areas the birth rate is high due to illiteracy.
Large scale sterilization camps should be organized in these areas.
Knowledgeable doctors and contraceptive means of modern technologies should be made available to the general public.
4. Abortion facilities:-
There is a need to increase the number of hospitals and nursing rooms requiring safe abortion in India.
Through this the birth rate can be reduced.
5. Through specific schemes:-
To stop population growth, people can be motivated to have limited families through many government schemes.
Population growth can be stopped by encouraging people to control population through many facilities provided by the government.
(2) By economic development of the country:-
The impact of increased population can be reduced by economic development of the country.
The following measures can be taken for this.
1. Efforts should be made to increase productivity by adopting corrective measures in the agricultural sector.
2. The production capacity of the country can be increased by upgrading the industrial structure.
3. The economic condition of the country can be improved by increasing communication means and transportation facilities.
Through the above measures, the effects of population growth can be reduced through economic development.
Poverty and illiteracy are the main reasons for population growth.
It can be expected that economically prosperous and educated people will be aware of population growth.
Step taken by the Goverment towards Preventions population growth in India
How to assimilate the country’s population in a planned manner in terms of size and structure,
which will lead to economic development of the country as well as increase in national income and per capita income.
For this, the National Population Policy has been made by the government,
the main provisions of which are as follows:-
(1) Completely voluntary:-
The family planning program will be run as a completely voluntary program and will be an integral part of the comprehensive policy.
(2) Central assistance to the states:-
For matters like central assistance to state schemes, transfer of taxes and duties, grants in aid, the population data of 1971 till 2001 will be considered as the basis.
This arrangement was supposed to last till 2001 but is still continuing even today.
Minimum marriageable age:-
According to the population policy, the government has increased the marriage age of girls from 15 years to 18 years and that of boys from 18 years.
Turned 21 years old.
Cash Incentive :-
Under the family planning program, cash amount is provided as incentive to the people who undergo sterilization.
Many types of incentives are provided for family planning by registered voluntary organizations.
Use of promotional media:-
Right kind of publicity media is used to make people aware about family planning.
Emphasis on education:-
To make the boys and girls aware about the increasing population,
such a curriculum has been kept in the textbook so that they understand their responsibilities in this direction and special emphasis has been given on the education of girls.
Population Policy 2000 :-
On 15 February 2000, the Central Government announced a new population policy.
It has been determined from the perspective of three main objectives:-
(1) The immediate objective of the policy:-
Adequate quantities of contraceptives, health protection infrastructure and health workers have to be supplied to the areas where supplies are to be supplied.
(2) Second objective of the policy:-
Which is called its secondary objective. The total fertility rate has to be brought down to 2:1 by 2010.
(3) The long term objective of this policy is to achieve the target of stable population by 2045.
This population policy talks about stabilizing the population level in line with the vision of economic growth, social development and environment.