Table of Contents
Indian democracy –
Meaning and definitions of democracy:-
Democracy is that system of governance in which the power of governance is not in the hands of any one person but is vested in the hands of the entire public.
Democracy is made up of two Greek words, Demos and Cratia.
Which means public and government respectively.
Thus, democracy means governance in the hands of the people i.e. voting for every adult citizen.
Has the right to elect its representatives.
Some definitions of democracy are as follows: –
According to Abraham Lincoln,
“Democracy is the government of the people, for the people, by the people.”
According to Seale –
“Democracy is that government in which every person has a share in governance.”
According to Dr. Cozier,
“The essence of Democracy is the quality of man’s material and social condition”
Importance of Democracy-
In the modern era, democratic governance system is considered to be the best governance system.
This is the reason why this system has been adopted in India also.
The following are the reasons for its adoption in India: –
1. All adult citizens of the country participate in this governance.
2. This freedom is based on the principles of equality and world brotherhood.
3. In this, citizens have complete freedom to criticize the government, hence governance is efficient.
4. In this, citizens get opportunities for their all-round development.
5. Democracy is a way of life, the people are sovereign.
It is the source of power, hence the public is the leader of this system.
Every citizen can participate in governance directly or indirectly.
forms of democracy :-
There are two forms of democracy in the world-
Direct democracy is suitable in a small country like Switzerland.
Here citizens gather directly and participate in governance work.
In this form of democracy, the people elect their representatives and their elected representatives run the governance of the country.
In India, the President and Vice President are elected in this manner.
The importance of Indian democracy can be shown in the following headings –
1. Freedom –
Indian democracy is the biggest worshiper of individual freedom.
He emphasizes on rights and freedom so that individuals can do all the work freely and develop all their powers.
For this reason, in democracy, citizens are given the right to freedom of expression.
Democracy is based on the principle of equality.
It provides equal rights to all citizens.
It does not discriminate on the basis of caste, religion, race, gender.
Everyone is given equal opportunities in government services.
Democracy ends untouchability and gives everyone equal freedom to go to public places by abolishing all types of titles and titles.
2. Fraternity –
Democracy emphasizes on feelings of mutual goodwill, love, sympathy, tolerance and mutual brotherhood.
Mutual cooperation and friendship is accepted as the basis of society and state.
3. Development of dignity of the individual:-
Indian democracy gives more emphasis on the dignity of the individual.
He wants the progress of every person and protection of his self-respect so that the overall personality of Indian citizens develops.
4. Sense of public welfare –
Indian democracy nurtures the spirit of democracy.
Therefore, for public welfare, he wants maximum welfare of the public.
For this, emphasis has been laid on the establishment of a public welfare state in the directive principles of state policy.
5. Feeling of world love and world peace –
Indian democracy is based on the feeling of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.
It is against war and violence and wants all nations to live in friendly relations with each other, hence India has accepted the principle of Panchsheel.
6. Development of political consciousness –
Democracy wants development and spread of political consciousness among the citizens.
He provides training in political behavior to every citizen through the right to vote.
Therefore, appeals for maximum voting under adult franchise.
7. Responsive Governance –
Democracy is a responsive system of governance.
Our MPs, MLAs and ministers are collectively responsible to the Parliament or Legislative Assembly.
Therefore the government cannot be autocratic.
8. Training of moral and civic qualities-
Indian democracy develops moral and civic qualities in the citizens and also provides practical training of these qualities.
These qualities are honesty, morality, love, cooperation, sympathy, tolerance, goodwill, responsibility, hard work and dedication etc.
By adopting these qualities a citizen can become an ideal citizen.
Merits of Democracy
Merits of democracy :-
The modern era is the era of democracy.
Most of the countries of the world have adopted democracy in some form or the other.
Many virtues are found in this governance system.
Following are the qualities of democracy:-
1. Most efficient governance –
Democracy is more efficient than any other governance system.
In this governance, work is done quickly for the welfare of the public.
In Garner’s words,
“Due to the system of popular elections, popular control and popular accountability, this governance system is more efficient than any other.”
2. Public gets political education –
In a democratic system of governance, the public gets all types of administrative, political and social education.
In a monarchy or an aristocracy, the public does not get the opportunity to receive such training.
But in a democracy, due to voting rights and public control, people naturally take interest in public works.
In the words of Burns, “All governments are means of education,
but good education is self-education,
therefore the best government is self-government which is called democracy.
Gattil has called democracy a school for
acquiring the education of citizenship.”
3. Works of public interest –
In a democracy, governance is done by the representatives of the people whom the people themselves elect.
The representatives elected by the people know very well the wishes, feelings and needs of the people and
they take up the work of governance with the sole purpose of always welcoming the wishes of the people.
The ruling class always remains accountable to the people.
4. Democratic governance,
which is conducive to honorable activities, has a good effect on the minds of humans.
No government can run the entire society.
But democratic governance is achieved through the voting rights of the people.
People get mental satisfaction from it.
Dr. Arshivadam has written,
“In a democracy, a sympathetic relationship is established between the government and the public.”
5. Moral progress of the people-
The biggest quality of democracy is that it elevates the personality and moral character of the person.
People develop a feeling of self-respect and self-reliance.
In the words of Bryce,
“By attainment of political rights, the dignity of man’s personality increases and he naturally rises to the highest level of the sense of duty which he has to follow for the attainment of political rights.”
6. Means of patriotism-
In a democracy, the people get political power,
due to which the people feel a kind of attachment towards the government and the state,
due to personal attachment, a feeling of patriotism arises in them.
In the words of Mill –
“Public system increases the patriotism of the people because the citizens feel that the government is the creation of the people and the officials are their servants and not their masters.”
7. Based on equality and freedom –
Democracy is based on the ideal of equality of individuals.
Every person gets to see the form of independent government only in democracy.
In democracy, discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, colour, colour, gender and property is not given importance.
In this there is belief in equality of human beings.
Its superiority is even greater because it believes in human ideals.
8. Support of world peace –
Democratic governments believe in the policy of co-existence and want to solve all problems peacefully.
9. Progress of science –
There is a lot of opportunity for the progress of science in democracy.
This increases the importance of scientists in the country.
10. Less possibility of revolution-
In democracy, there is less possibility of dissatisfaction, rebellion and revolution because democratic rule is the rule of the people.
If the public is dissatisfied with the government,
it has the right to change it.
Gil Christ has written about this –
“Popular rule is the rule of public consent, hence it is not revolutionary by nature. “
11. Development of local institutions-
In democratic governance, the entire burden of solving local problems is left on the local people.
Hence, local institutions develop and there is political awareness among the people.
Demerits of democracy –
Some defects are also found in democratic governance due to which it is called the rule of foolishness,
the enemy of freedom and the friend of inequality.
Its main defects are as follows:
1. Rule by incompetent persons-
Democracy is a system of governance in which special attention is not given to ability, skill and experience.
In this, every work of governance is seen on the basis of equality and
the opinion of a foolish person has the same importance as the opinion of a capable person.
Ultimately, the reins of governance come into the hands of people who are not capable of governing.
In Carline’s words –
“Democracy has neither the resources nor the power to search and select the best person and assume his leadership.”
2. The law of equality is unnatural-
In democratic governance, all persons, rich, poor, educated, illiterate and incompetent,
are considered equal in governance.
But this equality is not practical because nature has not made all people equal.
3. Emphasis on numbers rather than qualities –
In democratic governance, more emphasis is given on numbers rather than qualities.
Laski has written –
“Democracy gives unnecessary importance to numbers rather than qualities.
In democracy, votes are counted and not weighed.“
4. More expensive governance –
There is more wastage of money and time in democratic governance.
The number of members of the legislature and ministers is several hundred,
to whom high salaries have to be paid.
In this, decisions are also not taken quickly.
Hence the economic expenditure is higher.
5. Outbreak of factionalism –
Democracy is based on political parties.
False propaganda and false promises are made by the parties and citizens vote only in the name of the party.
For this reason factionalism is encouraged in democracy.
Due to party sentiments, impartial and capable people do not want to get involved in electoral battles,
due to which the country remains deprived of the services of capable people.
6. Unstable policies –
There is no stability in democratic governance.
As a result of repeated elections,
new political parties get the opportunity to form their government,
due to which political unrest persists.
There is no stability in government policy.
7. Obstacles in the progress of literature, art and science-
Art, literature, science etc. do not develop in a democratic governance system.
The common people do not get rid of the problem of food and clothing.
8. Bias of rich people –
Democracy is the rule of only rich people,
because only rich people participate in elections.
Capitalists become rulers by buying the votes of the poor with the power of money.
They fulfill their selfish interests.
Hence it is clear that both merits and demerits are found in democracy.
Essential conditions for the success of democracy –
To run a democracy successfully, certain conditions and circumstances are required,
in the absence of which democracy can never succeed.
These conditions are as follows:-
1. Public cooperation –
For the success of democracy,
it is necessary that the citizens have a feeling of performing their duty and giving cooperation.
Every citizen should indirectly help in the work of governance.
On the other hand, there should be a desire for proper utilization of rights.
Freedom has no value unless vigilance is permanent.
2. Political Consciousness –
Where the people are politically aware, democracy runs with great success.
If the public remains indifferent towards public works,
then the reins of governance fall into the hands of selfish and arbitrary people.
3. Feeling of national unity –
For the success of democracy,
there should be a feeling of national unity among the citizens.
Citizens should have devotion towards their nation.
One must be prepared to sacrifice one’s personal interest for the national interest.
Unfortunately, there are some people living in India today
who sing the praises of other countries after drinking Indian water and eating salt.
Even today, such people continue to promote casteism, provincialism and communalism in India.
In fact, those people can be called traitors who betray their country.
For this, patriotism should be taught in the country which is not there in a secular country like India.
4. Economic equality –
When there is economic equality in the country, democracy has achieved great success.
In a country where citizens face the problem of food and clothing all the time, democracy exists only in name.
Therefore, discrimination between rich and poor should be eliminated in the society.
The poor must get such remuneration for their work that they can easily sustain their livelihood.
5. Independent Judiciary –
For the success of democracy,
it is necessary to have an independent judiciary.
The judiciary should be kept completely independent from the control of the executive and the legislature.
6. Education of the public –
For the success of democracy,
it is necessary for the public to be educated so that they can use their voting rights properly.
The illiterate public does not understand the political tricks and tricks;
they are easily duped by anyone.
7. Healthy and aware public opinion –
Democracy can be successful only when public opinion is aware and healthy.
The stronger the public opinion in a country,
the more cautiously the government of that country will act.
Public opinion has great importance in a democratic government.
Because on this basis the government is formed and falls.
8. Freedom of the press-
Public opinion is freely expressed through newspapers.
This can happen only if there is no control on the press.
9. Well-organized political parties –
Political parties are a good means of expressing public opinion.
Because of such parties the government is not able to act arbitrarily.
There are many parties in India which lack discipline.
Members of political parties leave one party and join another party out of selfishness.
Political parties should not be formed on communal or religious basis.
The basis of their creation should be nationwide interest.
10. Local Self-Government –
A part of democracy is local self-government.
Through this the public gets the opportunity to participate in political activities.
Therefore, it is the ultimate duty of the government to develop local self-governance.