International relations

International relations

International relations

India has always been keen to maintain good relations with its neighboring countries.

Its policy is based on mutual trust, good will and cooperation.

To our north we have China, Nepal and Bhutan.

Bangladesh and Burma are in the east, Pakistan, Afghanistan are in the west and Sri Lanka is in the south.

All nations except China have recently become independent.

Russia and America are also world powers and are permanent members of the Security Council.

India’s foreign policy has always been one of peace and security.

Leaving aside international relations and border related disputes, India always follows the spirit of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.

It has its own independent foreign policy.

Mainly India’s effort has always been to remain neutral and free from the influence of big powers.

It always maintains friendship and cooperation with its neighbors and friendly nations for peace,

stability and economic development, with this goal in mind.

It has been a primary member of SAARC and the United Nations.

( International relations)

International relations between China and India

For many centuries, there were cordial relations between China and India and slogans of Hindi-Chinese brotherhood were raised.

But in October 1950, bitterness arose between the two countries over the question of Tibchat.

India’s attitude towards China remained very friendly since the time of Nehruji.

India welcomed the communist revolution in China in 1949 and was the first to give it political recognition.

He opposed the United Nations’ attempt to portray China as an aggressor.

Had taken China’s side in the Korean War.

India is also continuously making efforts for its entry into the United Nations.

India-China relations took a new turn when on June 29, 1954, an 8-year trade agreement was signed between

the two nations under which China got internal territorial rights from Tibet.

The principles of Panchsheel were adopted in the preamble of this trade agreement and

when India accepted China’s sovereignty in Tibet,

it was assured to establish friendly relations.

The exponent of Panchsheel was Nehruji and the Prime Minister of China Chou En Lai.

The Prime Ministers of both the countries made political visits to each other’s country.

Full cooperation was shown in the Badung Conference

and slogans of Hindi-Chini Bhai-Bhai echoed in independent India at that time.

Between 1949 and 1957,

there were differences between the two only on the question of Tibet

but it did not become a hindrance in friendship.

( International relations )

Principles of Panchsheel:-

Panchsheel means five principles of conduct.

On April 29, 1954, Prime Minister of India Shri Jawaharlal Nehru and Prime Minister of China Chou En Lai met in

Tibet to establish friendly relations between different nations and to discourage imperialism, militarism, war and terrorism.

In the two-day conference,

it was decided to adopt the following five principles of international relations –

1. Respect for each other’s sovereignty and integrity

2. Non-aggression means not attacking each other.

, Non-interference means not interfering in each other’s affairs.

3 4. Establishment of friendly economic relations based on the principle of equality and mutual benefit.

5. Peaceful coexistence means maintaining free relations with all the countries of the world.

Panchsheel Bandug Conference eventually became the reason for the defeat of Indian diplomacy.

It became an example of extreme idealism and short-sightedness of Indian leaders.

In 1956, there was a rebellion in support of the Dalai Lama in the Khampa region of Tibet and on March 31, 1959,

when the Dalai Lama along with some of his supporters came to India for political asylum,

the Indian government gave them shelter near Mussoorie.

This was considered hostile non-cooperation in China.

From here the era of bitterness in the relations between India and China started.

In 1950-51, Communist China showed a large part of India as a part of China in its map,

on which the Indian government drew China’s attention.

China also assured to modify it but on 17 July 1954, China imposed this on the Indian Government.

Alleged that the Indian Government has captured a place called Buje.

While that was Indian territory, in 1959 China sent its military troops to the border areas of India.

Tried to dominate that area which was opposed by India and led to bitterness between the countries

This culminated in the Chinese invasion of 1962.

On September 8, 1962, Chinese forces crossed the McMahon Line and entered the Indian border and attacked.

This war took place during the tenure of Indian Prime Minister Shri Jawaharlal Nehru.

Three reasons were considered for this attack, first was the imperialist policy of China, second was the resistance to the Dalai Lama being a refugee.

3. Desire to become the supreme power in Asia.

4 There is lack of boundary demarcation between India and China.

In the 1962 war, China launched a fierce attack on the north-eastern border of Ladakh,

but after two months, on 21 November 1962,

China announced a unilateral ceasefire and vacated its designated areas from India.

A resolution was passed under the chairmanship of Mrs.

Bandaranaike to resolve the border dispute between India and China.

China refused to accept these proposals and even in the Indo-Pak wars of 1965 and 1971, China had an anti-India stance.

During the Janata rule, India again made efforts to establish political, diplomatic

and trade relations with the aim of improving relations between China and India.

In 1978, a high level Chinese delegation was sent under the leadership.

On 12 February 1979, Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited China as Foreign Minister.

During the tenure of Prime Minister Mrs.

Indira Gandhi, China’s Premier Zhuo Feng in Belgrade hinted at improving relations with India and in 1981, De Fang visited India.

Both countries agreed towards normalization of relations.

The Chinese government allowed Indian travelers to visit Manasarovar and Mount Kailash.

In May 1982, a Chinese delegation led by Kuha came to New Delhi for talks on the border dispute.

Till 1987, eight rounds of talks between India and China continued.

In 1984, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi continued the process of normalization of relations with China.

In October 1985, Shri Rajiv Gandhi discussed border issues with China’s Foreign Minister in New York

and in 1987 with Indian Minister Narayan Dutt Tiwari in Beijing

because in June 1986, Chinese forces entered 6-7 kilometers inside the Indian border in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Established a military post and built a helipad, but China did not consider it an encroachment,

so the problem remained the same.

In 1988, Rajiv Gandhi visited China to improve trade and cultural relations.

The National Front government also continued the process of improving relations with China,

but the border problem remained the same.

During the reign of Prime Minister Shri Narasimha Rao,

in a joint communique under the leadership of Chinese Prime Minister Li Pang,

both the countries called for resolving the border dispute and three agreements were signed between the two countries, the first trade agreement.

Secondly, it was decided to open a Consulate in Bombay in Shanghai and thirdly,

it was decided to cooperate in the internal area and in 1992,

the Chinese Prime Minister and Nar Simha Rao signed an agreement to reduce the army on the India-China border.

On June 18, 1994, Chinese Foreign Minister Sho Shen signed an agreement to eliminate double taxation between India and China.

During the Prime Ministership of Shri Deve Gowda, Shri Gujral and Shri Vajpayee,

bilateral trade efforts intensified and Indian markets opened up for Chinese goods.

Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and India’s Foreign Minister Shri Jaswant Singh ji

To promote peace, security and cooperation in Asia and to combat terrorist activities of Pakistan.

It was decided to oppose the promotion and eradication of terrorism was discussed.

Direct air service was also started between Delhi and Beijing.

Efforts for friendly relations with China are continuing during the tenure of Manmohan Singh as Prime Minister.

Present India is continuously striving to welcome a new era of peace and prosperity.

(International relations )

Relations between India and America:-

Due to the end of the Cold War,

a unique era has started between India and America, both are democratic countries.

India is a neutral country.

The bitterness, tension, isolation and distrust between America and India in the first decade of independence are now converting into friendship

and there is a hope that India and America will build a progressive relationship in international relations.

India and America have a similar perspective on global challenges.

India’s growing relations with America is an important effort in the multi-polar system.

There has been a huge change in India-US relations in recent years.

The end of the Cold War and many geopolitical perspectives

Because of equality it became possible for us to come closer to each other.

In March 2000, President Clinton agreed that India and the United States would be partners in peace in the new century

and would cooperate in regional and

Will assume shared responsibility for ensuring international security.

On November 1, 2001, India and President Bush pledged to improve their bilateral relations.

India and the United States agreed that in partnership,

the two countries would be democracies in all future political

You will gain the innate power to adapt to changes.

Our Government’s commitment to strengthening this relationship in India is echoed by all political parties.

There is support.

In fact, people often say that progress is slow.

They want immediate dramatic results and Modi-like symbols of friendship.

During four decades of opposition in Parliament,

one lesson has been learned from Indians and that is that when the thick clouds of doubt and differences do not go away,

both the countries will have to keep making efforts in this direction and keep their vision higher than immediate interests.

Will have to be made wider. India and America

The main points of difference are as follows –

Colonialism and imperialism :-

After attaining independence, both India and America strongly opposed colonialism and imperialism.

American leaders condemned colonialism and imperialism because of their association with imperialist countries.

And instead of protesting,

he mostly remained silent.

( International relations )

Major issues of difference between India and America:-

1. Colonialism and imperialism,

2. China’s communist revolution and recognition by India,

3. Problem of Indo China,

4. Question of Kashmir,

5. Military organization,

6. America’s support and military assistance to Pakistan.

Communist China emerged in 1949 and the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in December

America did not like this action of India by giving recognition to 1949.

The Indo-China problem also created bitterness between the two countries because America gave them military assistance.

America was always in favor of Pakistan even regarding Kashmir problem.

America considers international treaties and military organization essential while India is opposed to it.

India’s inclination towards Russia.

America’s support to Khalistan movement.

Question of China’s membership of United Nations.

Pakistan’s Aquos aircraft rocket technology.

Approval of nuclear test.

India’s support to Khalistan movement.

America’s pressure to stop the missile program,

there are many such questions which have been hindering the friendly relations between India and America.

At present, the scope and frequency of India-US talks has increased significantly.

Now it also includes seven long-term and short-term issues of international and regional affairs.

The important thing is that the circumstances of the talks have also changed.

Now India and America talk to each other with confidence.

Dialogue based on respect and equality is successful especially

because India and America have accepted that there is no fundamental conflict in their interests and

they work together on issues of consensus.

And keeping the relations unaffected, they also openly discuss the differences,

due to this the friendship between India and America has matured.

For the first time, India has entered into significant defense cooperation.

Terrorism, National Crime and Cyber ​​Crime India and

A matter of concern for America.

India and the US have also signed agreements in these areas.

India and the US are doing joint research in leading areas of science and

technology, including medicine, pollution-free energy and advanced materials.

Both of them are also working towards agreements related to civil space applications and civil nuclear safety.

Due to information technology and new knowledge-based economy,

bilateral relations between India and America are becoming stronger.

The participation of both the countries in the development of future technology is at new heights.

The contacts between the two countries are not limited to government or official levels only.

In educational institutions, scientists, laboratories, offices and homes and even in cyber space,

Indians and Americans are moving towards establishing new identities according to their interests.

Due to their talent, hard work and enterprise,

Indians and Americans have emerged as the richest minority in the country,

especially their achievements in the fields of information technology, financial services,

management and medicine have contributed to American progress.

Indian economy is on the path of progress in the last ten years.

Our economy is the fourth and largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power supply.

India’s foreign reserves are about 90 million dollars and are increasing by one billion dollars every fortnight.

Rapid economic development will bring the two countries closer to each other

and will have a far-reaching impact on the shared future of both the countries.

America has started understanding India’s pain and suffering in the matter of terrorism.

It will take a long time for the international war against terrorism to end.

Both the countries will move forward in a long-term strategy.

Both the democratic countries should work in harmony.

Any threat to one country should be considered a threat to everyone.

Second, to eliminate terrorism,

all countries should be continuously expected to meet high level standards.

Third, there should be clarity in the resolution,

scope and purpose so that a confusing situation does not arise on policy terrorism.

Fourth, to win the war against terrorism,

we need long-term and intelligent partnership between

the two countries on ideas that will accelerate political-economic transformation.

The mature India-US relationship had a tremendous impact on the world order.

( International relations )

relations between pakistan and india :-

After attaining independence on 15 August 1947,

India determined its policy in international relations on the ideals of pacifism,

establishment of friendly relations with all countries,

opposition to imperialism and colonialism,

and deep faith in the principles of the United Nations.

India has always given importance to the policy of non-alignment in world politics and in determining relations with its neighboring countries.

Pakistan was born on 14 August 1947 due to the partition of India,

despite having close geographical and historical relations,

their relations remained full of conflict.

According to Mr. Kailai,

“Only one element has consistently dominated Pakistan’s foreign policy, that is opposition to India.”

The history of India-Pakistan relations is a history of tense and non-cooperative relations

due to the desire to seek security against India.

The partition of India gave rise to many types of problems.

Due to which India-Pakistan relations could not become normal,

partition gave rise to many economic problems in India-Pakistan relations.

There were differences between the two countries regarding the payment of loans given by the British Government.

Similarly, a dispute also arose on the question of distribution of water of the rivers of Punjab between the two countries.

Kashmir problem is the main issue of tense relations between India and Pakistan.

Till August 15, 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir did not decide to accede to either the dominions of India or Pakistan.

Therefore, the Maharaja signed a status quo agreement with Pakistan on 14 August,

but Pakistan did not follow the status quo agreement.

On 22 October 1947, under the military leadership of Pakistan,

the tribals attacked Kashmir and committed arson, looting and brutal murders.

Then the Maharaja of Kashmir asked for military assistance from the Government of India and according to the Act 1947 in the Union of India,

the rulers of the princely states of their respective states

The princely states were free to either accede to India or Pakistan or to maintain themselves as independent states.

Due to the efforts of the then Home Minister of India,

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, 559 princely states acceded to India as per their geographical and religious convenience.

Jammu and Kashmir were three princely states which were ready to merge with neither India nor Pakistan;

the princely state of Junagadh was merged with India on the basis of referendum.

But Sardar could not do anything about Kashmir because Sheikh Abdullah gained a lot of importance due to the friendship of Prime Minister Nehru.

He started dreaming of independent Kashmir.

Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir also wanted to keep Jammu and Kashmir independent as a neutral nation.

In such a situation, Maharaj tried to make a temporary agreement with both the countries

and kept framing the question of merger of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

This is why the Kashmir problem was born.

On 27 October, Indian forces started the Kashmir Defense Campaign and by the time of ceasefire on 1 January 1949,

Indian troops had liberated most of the princely state from the attackers.

On 18 January 1948, Prime Minister Pandit Nehru presented the Kashmir problem in the Security Council.

The Security Council asked to withdraw its armies and militias from Kashmir

but till date Kashmir has not complied with this proposal of the Security Council.

On 6 February 1954, the Constituent Assembly of Kashmir confirmed the merger of Kashmir into the Union of India,

hence Kashmir became an integral part of India and on 14 May 1954,

India granted special status to Kashmir in the Union of India in Article 370 of the Constitution.

There were debates in the Security Council on the Kashmir problem in India and Pakistan in 1948, 1949, 1957, 1962, 1964, 1965 and 1971,

but they yielded no results.

On September 1, 1965, Pakistan crossed the International Border and attacked Chhamb Jorichaya area of ​​Kashmir.

Due to the efforts of the Security Council, there was a ceasefire between the two countries on September 23, 1965.

Tashkent Agreement was signed on 10 January 1965 in which

it was decided to resolve their disputes through peaceful means.

Civil war started in East Bengal on 25 March 1971 after Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared local Bangladesh.

As a result, arrival of one lakh refugees into India created a very tense situation in India and Pakistan.

On 3 December 1971, Pakistan attacked India.

Pakistan was defeated in the war. Shimla Agreement was signed on July 2, 1972,

on the basis of which both sides decided to resolve their differences peacefully through bilateral talks.

Since 1989, Pakistan has been creating a situation of undeclared war against India

by providing military training and weapons to the terrorists of Kashmir,

hence India-Pakistan relations are becoming unusual and tense in the context of Kashmir problem.

Due to Jihad i.e. communal aggressive policy against India by Pakistan,

the peace war between India and Pakistan took the form of armed war several times.

Pakistan Islamized the Kashmir problem

so that it could continue to get the support of Muslim countries against India in world politics. .

Pakistan tried to incite communal riots in India, especially in Kashmir,

after the theft of the sacred hair of Hazrat Muhammad Sahib

from the Hazrat Bal Mosque in Srinagar in September 1963.

The armament of Pakistan and becoming a member of SEATO and CENTO increased the bitterness in the relations between the two countries.

Although Pakistan left the membership of SEATO in 1972 and CENTO in 1979,

still its armament and militarization remains a matter of concern for India.

After 1972, there were ups and downs in India-Pakistan relations.

In accordance with the spirit of Shimla Agreement, several agreements related to Pakistan trade, shipping,

air flights and travel facilities were concluded between the two countries in 1976.

Foreign Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee paid a goodwill visit to Pakistan in February 1976.

As a result, the Salal Water Treaty was concluded between the two countries in April 1976.

This treaty was an important agreement towards normalizing India-Pakistan relations.

On 21 December 1986,

India and Pakistan agreed not to attack each other’s nuclear facilities.

Pakistan did not accept the treaty of war declaration and peace cooperation friendship proposed by India.

Disrespected the Shimla Agreement by raising the Kashmir issue in various international conferences.

Pakistan has directly interfered in India’s internal affairs by giving statements in November 1989 and again on November 2, 1991,

regarding the Ramjanmabhoomi temple and Babri Masjid in Ayodhya.

Both India and Pakistan are neighboring countries,

but Pakistan’s foreign policy has been anti-India since the beginning.

( International relations )

1. Hyderabad dispute :-

Hyderabad’s meeting with the Indian Union,

which Pakistan raised thrice in the United Nations.

( International relations )

2. Junagadh problem :-

This was a small problem of Junagadh whose king was Muslim,

population was Hindu and the ruler wanted to join Pakistan.

So the public revolted and India had to intervene.

The referendum was in favor of India and Junagadh was merged into India.

( International relations )

Loan Repayment : –

Indian Government accepted all the loans of England Government, under this,

Pakistan had to give a loan of Rs. 300 crores to India within five years,

but Pakistan was reluctant to give the loan.

Due to which bitterness arose.

( International relations )

Refugee Problem:-

Due to communal riots during the partition of India and Pakistan,

thousands of refugees fled to India but the Pakistan government did not protect the Hindus,

due to which these Hindu refugees left their property in Pakistan and even today the problem of refugees remains. happened.

Two major agreements were made for friendly and peaceful cooperation and progress in both the countries –

1. Tashkent Agreement

2. Shimla Agreement.

( International relations )

Tashkent Agreement :-

On the initiative of Soviet Russian Prime Minister Kosygin,

Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur and Pakistan President Ayub Khan had reached Tashkent.

On January 10, 1966, both the countries signed an agreement which is known as Tashkent Agreement.

The main points of this agreement are as follows –

1. Efforts will be made by both the nations to establish good neighborly relations in accordance with the United Nations Charter.

The soldiers of both the countries will go back before 25 February 1966 to the places where they were before August 1965.

2. Both countries will follow the terms of the ceasefire.

3. Both countries will not interfere in each other’s internal affairs.

The High Commissioners of both the countries will return to their posts

and diplomatic relations will be established between the two countries.

4. Both countries will discourage propaganda against each other

and encourage propaganda that enhances friendly relations.

5. Both countries will repatriate prisoners of war.

Under this agreement, India transferred 1 lakh rupees to Pakistan.

Returned the prisoners of war.

( International relations )

Shimla Agreement:-

During the Prime Ministership of Mrs.

Indira Gandhi, Shimla Agreement was signed to normalize the relations between the two countries.

This agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 13.

The following agreement was signed in July 1972 –

1. The governments of both the countries will end bitterness by establishing mutual relations.

2. Both will not make hate propaganda against each other

3. We will resume continuous traffic and communication between the two countries through land, sea and air routes.

4. Both countries will exchange in trade, economic, scientific and cultural fields.

5. Both countries will make continuous efforts to implement the Shimla Agreement.

( International relations )

conclusion:-

Regarding India-Pakistan relations,

Michael Brecher has rightly said,

“India and Pakistan have always been in a state of undeclared war.”

While discussing the basic reasons of differences between the two countries,

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru had said in the Indian Parliament,

“People have this misconception that Kashmir dispute is the root cause of India-Pakistan conflict.

It is different from our basic ideology but we are in secularism.

Have faith.”

There is tension in relations between India and Pakistan till date.

Pakistan is still interfering in India’s internal affairs.

Helping to spread terrorism in India.

Following are the reasons for tension and differences between India and Pakistan –

1) Pakistan is sending Pakistani trained infiltrators to Jammu and Kashmir

and Punjab state by equipping them with modern weapons to spread communalism and terrorism across the Indian border.

2) Pakistan openly violated the Shimla Agreement in many international forums and influenced the public opinion in Kashmir.

Raises demand for collection.

If an attempt is made to Islamise the Kashmir problem at the international level, then both

There is bitterness in relations between countries.

3) Pakistan is sealing the Sindh border and deploying a large number of military forces against India and alleging that it is wreaking havoc in Sindh.

4) Pakistan’s nuclear program and manufacturing of nuclear weapons is a strong challenge for India,

it continued to take arms from America and China for armament.

5) An important problem between India and Pakistan is the Siachen Glacier dispute,

although talks have been held several times between the two countries at the secretary level,

yet no agreement is being reached.

6) The President of Pakistan keeps making anti-India statements

from time to time and making wrong comments on the Kashmir problem

due to which the agreements made many times become useless.

7) From time to time, some conservative politicians of Pakistan create obstacles in normalizing the relations between the two

by putting pressure on the ruling President and playing petty politics.

8) Today, Pakistan’s hostility towards India has become a part of religion as well as politics,

this is the reason.

The reason is that relations between the two are not becoming normal even though repeated efforts are being made.

( International relations )

Relations between India and Russia:-

India and Russia have very good relations.

Russia in Kashmir issue Supported India.

Russia has provided significant assistance to India in industrial development.

Russia and India in 1971 A treaty was signed between.

In the treaty in which both the countries promised to respect each other’s integrity and independence

and promised to help each other in times of crisis.

Supported Russia in progress in space service industrialization and economic assistance.

Russia itself ceased to exist in the year 1991.

Like former Russia, India’s relations with the new Russia remain cordial.

Russia criticized Pakistan’s action on Kargil issue.

Russia supported India’s permanent membership in the Security Council.

Rumors strongly criticized Pakistan’s terrorist actions in India.

Even today, India’s relations with Russia are friendly and the relations with neutral India are pre-friendly.

It is ready to extend its full support to neutral India

by providing continuous support and support to make it a developed nation.

To understand the relations between India and Russia,

it will be necessary to understand the previous relations between Soviet Union and Russia.

The Soviet Union was established on 7 November 1917.

In 1921, Lenin announced the economic policy. Russia’s relations with India remained very friendly during the rule of Khushchaev in 1956,

during the rule of Brezhnev and during the rule of Gorbachev in 1985.

They kept sharing their economic and scientific experiences with each other.

Khrushchev had even said that whenever India needs our help,

she should stand on the top of the mountain and call us and we will come running.

Jawaharlal Nehru and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan made important contributions in improving relations between Russia and India.

Chhattisgarh’s steel factory was opened only with the help of Russia.

( International relations )

Relations between India and Russia after the disintegration of the Soviet Union:-

It was natural for India to be worried after the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

Like the former Soviet Union, Russia is keen to establish closer relations with India.

Like on January 31, Russia is keen to develop closer ties with India.

On January 31, 1991, President Yeltsin met the Prime Minister of India in New York.

In January 1992, a high level team of officials led by the Foreign Secretary went to Russia and Ukraine.

A new friendship and cooperation treaty with Russia was finalized.

India offered humanitarian aid amounting to Rs 15 crore to the Russian Federation.

The objective of this offering is to provide distress relief to that section of the population of the Union

which has been badly affected by the disintegration of economic activity following

the recent political and economic changes in the former Soviet Union.

The funds will be used to provide relief to essential items such as child nutrition.

Rice will be used for supply of standard medicines.

In April 1992, Russian Foreign Minister Gennady Trivialis,

during his visit to India, said that his country

India will respect the Soviet agreement regarding cryogenic engines.

The Russian Foreign Minister said that Russia definitely supports deepening of relations with India on the basis of mutual benefit

and respect for the political and economic systems of the two countries.

The first India-Russia trade protocol was finalized which was valid till 1992.

Russia has also supported India’s permanent membership in the United Nations Security Council,

whereas America’s view is exactly the opposite.

The most important fact in India-Russia relations is that even today there is a significant pro-India lobby in Russia which promotes India-Russia friendship.

Is in favor of maintaining.

The Russian parliamentary delegation has also fully supported India.

( International relations )

Conclusion:-

In short, it can be said that except for some differences,

India-Russia relations remained cordial.

Russia has criticized Pakistan for promoting terrorist activities in India.

So far, relations between the two countries are cordial and are likely to remain so in the future.

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educationallof
Author: educationallof

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