British rule in India how many years
Table of Contents
British rule in India how many years –
Arrival of European races, power struggle and establishment of British rule.
Establishment of British power in India:
The huge Mughal Empire which was established in India by the Mughal ruler Babar, sank into decline in the 18th century.
After Aurangzeb, all the Mughal rulers who ruled Delhi were surrounded by troubles and the Mughal Empire was in disrepair.
Many independent and semi-independent powers arose on the ruins of the Mughal Empire.
Nizam-ul-Mulk in the south, Alivardi Khan in Bengal and Sahadat Khan in Awadh established independent states,
Ruhela Afghans established their independent power in Rohilkhand, Sikhs increased their power in Punjab and Marathas increased their power in Maharashtra.
Meanwhile, many foreign powers came to India to do business and gradually they started interfering in Indian politics.
These independent powers nominally accepted the authority of the Mughal Empire and tried to legitimize their position by getting acceptance as their representatives.
In these states, the rulers established law and peace and created practical, economic and administrative structures.
Political rights were decentralised.
Due to which the chieftains, jagirdars and landlords gained political and economic power.
There was secular politics in these states. The rulers made appointments in public places, army and civil services on the basis of merit,
without taking into account religious discrimination,
but they did not pay attention to economic development,
due to which gradually the economy of the states started deteriorating.
The rulers encouraged internal and foreign trade but made no efforts to modernize the basic industrial and trade infrastructure,
as a result these states were unable to stop the growing influence of foreign powers.
Ultimately British rule was established in India.
Independent Indian states of the 18th century:
(1) Hyderabad –
Independent power was established in Hyderabad in 1724 AD by Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jahan.
It ruled as an independent ruler, fought many battles, made peace and treaties, appointed Hindus to high positions.
The annual income of his state was about Rs 18 crore per year.
After the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1748, his son Nasir Jung became Nizam.
There were other claimants in the dynasty to become Nizam.
Due to the conflict between them, European powers interfered in the politics of Hyderabad and as a result,
in 1798, the Nizam accepted the subjugation of the British.
Nawab of Karnataka Shaadatullah Khan was under the king of Hyderabad.
But later it also established independent power.
In Karnataka too, the British and the French intervened in the family struggle for succession and in the end the Nawab accepted the subordination of the British.
Taking advantage of the weakness of the Mughal power in Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan had established independent power.
Murshid Quli Khan proved to be a capable ruler.
During his reign, unprecedented progress took place in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
He died in June 1727 AD.
After Murshid Quli Khan, his son-in-law Shujauddin Muhammad Khan became the ruler of that place.
After his death in 1739, Shujauddin’s son Sarfaraz Khan ascended the throne.
Anarchy spread in Bengal during his rule.
By killing him in April 10, 1740 AD, Alivardi Khan became the ruler of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
He again established peace and order in Bengal.
After Alivardi Khan, his grandson Siraj-ud-Daula became the ruler of Bengal.
He was defeated by the British in the Battle of Plassey and Battle of Buxar and accepted their subordination.
Shaadat Khan had established independent power in Awadh.
After his death, Safdarjung became the Nawab of Awadh.
Shuja-ud-Daula became Nawab in October, 1754 AD.
He was the most popular Nawab of North India.
After being defeated by the British in the battle of Buxar in 1765 AD, Shuja-ud-Daula gave Allahabad and Kada province to the British.
In 1856, Lord Dalhousie took control of Awadh by accusing the last Nawab of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, of misrule.
A military leader named Hyder Ali established power in Mysore in 1761.
Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan remained at war with the British throughout their lives.
Ultimately Mysore also came under the control of the British.
Apart from these states, many independent states were established around Delhi.
Among them, Rajput state, Jat state and Sikh state were prominent.
All these independent native states were always in conflict with each other.
Due to which the political, economic and social situation of India had become extremely bad.
Taking advantage of this weak political situation, foreign powers started establishing their foothold.