Natural resources types

Natural resources types

Natural resources types –

Important Natural Resources

The basic needs of our life are fulfilled by the things found in nature,

such as air, water, soil, minerals, coal, petroleum, animals and plants.

This storehouse of nature which is always useful for human life is called ‘Natural Resources’.

We use these resources as per our wish for various needs.

Our ancestors used only those resources which were essential for their life.

It was necessary.

Today, as a result of increasing population, industrialization and urbanization,

we have started exploiting natural resources more and more.

Types Of Natural Resources

Natural resources can be divided into two types-

1.Renewable Natural Resources: –

These resources are available in unlimited quantities in nature

and are capable of continuous human use.

For example, sun rays, air and water.

2. Degradable Natural Resources:-

The stock of these natural resources is limited.

Its quantity keeps decreasing due to continuous use.

Examples of these – minerals, coal, petroleum, animals and plants.

(A) Soil 

Soil is another important natural resource which is essential for our life and development.

Our main needs like food, clothing and shelter are fulfilled by

the plants growing in the soil or the animals living dependent on those plants.

Soil is the upper layer of the earth, which is formed by the disintegration of rocks.

formed by the actions that take place between physical and biological components.

Soil is not only a group of chemical elements but also includes biological components.

On the basis of physical form and structure, six (6) main types of soils are found in our country.

(1) Alluvial soil – It is rich in clay and loamy soil.

(2) Black soil – It mainly consists of clay soil.

(3) Red soil – It is mainly sandy and loamy.

(4) Mountain soil – It is sandy and rocky.

(5) Desert soil – It contains more sand and less organic matter.

(6) Laterite soil – It is porous clay soil which contains iron and aluminum hydroxide in abundance.

The presence of inorganic and organic substances necessary for plant growth determines the fertility of the soil.

When the same type of crops are grown continuously,

the upper surface of the soil gets damaged which reduces the fertility of the soil.

Soil erosion caused by strong winds and excessive rainfall also reduces the fertility of the soil.

In nature, the soil keeps on re-forming and it regains its fertility.

That is why soil is kept in the category of renewable resources.

(B) Air

It is a continuously existing natural resource which is essential for the survival of all living beings.

Air is a mixture of different gases in which nitrogen is 78% and oxygen is 21%.

Carbon dioxide, ammonia, ozone and noble gases (helium argon etc.) are found in 1% of the air by volume.

The air present above the earth’s surface is called atmosphere.

The density of air in the atmosphere varies at different heights from the Earth’s surface.

From this point of view the atmosphere has been divided into different parts.

The air we collect for respiration is present in the first part of the atmosphere.

It is 10 to 12 cm above the earth’s surface.

Limited to height.

Which is called “troposphere”.

Atmosphere level, natural resources types

CO2 and other gases found in the troposphere heat the surface atmosphere.

Above the troposphere is the stratosphere.

Where the ozone gas layer is found.

This layer protects our life by absorbing many harmful solar radiations like ultraviolet (UV) rays.

The side effects of ultraviolet radiations cause serious diseases like cataract, burns, cancer.

It is estimated that a person requires an average of 250 to 265 kg of air to meet his daily needs.

Green house effect

‘GREEN HOUSE EFFECT’ Solar radiation easily enters the earth’s atmosphere without any fear.

The emitted solar radiation, carbon dioxide and other atmospheric gases prevent all the radiation from going back,

due to which the atmosphere of the upper surface of the earth remains warm.

Animals and plants Air is essential for life and propagation and as a medium of communication.

(C) Water

Water is extremely essential for life.

It is an important medium for all biological activities and water is a universal solvent.

The important quality of water is that the density of water is similar to that of protoplasm.

Water is a major natural resource, human basic need and valuable national heritage.

Our country has reserves of both surface and underground water.

India has long coastline as well as rich water sources like rivers, waterfalls, ponds etc.

It is estimated that the total water resources in our country are 1869 km³ in rivers and 432 km³ in underground water.

We depend on water for many of our needs like drinking water, cooking, cleaning, transportation, agriculture, hydropower etc.

The surface and underground water we receive comes from rainfall and melting of snow.

Which is a part of the water cycle process.

Different areas of our country receive different amounts of rainfall.

Based on the annual proportion of rainfall, we have four major regions-

1. Wetlands – This area receives a lot of rainfall. (More than 200 cm)

2. Moderately humid area – Here there is sufficient rainfall. (from 100 to 200 cm)

3. Partially dry area – Here there is normal rainfall. (from 50 to 100 cm)

4. Dry area – Annual rainfall here is very less. (from 20 to 50 cm)

The water that seeps from the voids of rocks below the land surface is called underground water.

The area in which porous rocks become completely filled with water.

It is called the Zone of Saturation.

The upper level of the saturated zone is called the ground water level.

Ground water level is measured with reference to the height of that place above mean sea level.

Land The actual vertical distance of the ground water level from the bottom is called water level.

In springs, permanent rivers, lakes etc.

the ground water level reaches the surface whereas in dry areas

and at high altitude places the water level is found at a deeper depth.

Ground water is used to provide moisture to the soil for plant growth and for human consumption.

Ground water, natural resources types

(D) Minerals

The underground collection of metals and minerals in our country is limited.

Coal, petroleum, iron, copper, gold, silver etc. are valuable resources for humans.

Coal and petroleum have been sources of energy for us.

It is used in transportation, agriculture and industrial works.

Metals, non-metals, minerals, fuels, lubricants etc. are non-renewable resources.

Later, humans started using these minerals as a source of heat and energy.

Today, in the era of technological development,

they are being used in many works,

such as medicine, space, luxury and labor saving means,

building construction, scientific research and national security etc.

Atomic energy or nuclear energy is generated from nuclear reactions of uranium and thorium metals.

Mineral resources play an important role in improving the economic condition of the nation.

Mining and related industries provide employment opportunities to millions of people.

(E) Energy

Coal, petroleum, natural gas, water power, solar radiation, wind and nuclear power are the main sources of energy.

These sources of energy are divided into two categories.

(i) Non-renewable or traditional resources

(ⅱ) Renewable or non-conventional resources

Fossil fuels like coal and petroleum are in limited quantity.

And after they expire, they cannot be recovered.

These are called non-renewable or conventional energy sources.

India has the potential to generate energy from various resources.

The total electrical capacity of our country has increased from 1400 megawatts (Mw) to 97,800 MW from 1947 to March 2000.

Solar radiation, wind, water power, biomass and nuclear power etc. are the resources of renewable energy.

These are polluting sources of energy.

These resources keep getting renewed or recycled in nature.

Many utility plants running on non-conventional energy sources have been developed in India.

Solar energy is a large and excellent source of non-conventional energy.

In India, solar energy can be converted into electrical and thermal energy for 250 to 300 days.

This transformation takes place through solar thermal and photovoltaic pathways.

Solar energy is used for many devices like solar cooker, solar heater, solar dryer, solar cell etc.

The use of these plants has been very successful.

It is especially useful in community lighting, running pumps, agriculture and obtaining potable water.

Water power is the largest source of energy after thermal power.

At present the production of hydro power in our country is 23800 MW.

To generate hydropower, the flow of water is stopped by building a dam.

With the high pressure of dam water, water is allowed to flow through the tunnels.

The potential energy of water is converted into electrical energy by the turbines

and water generators installed in these tunnels.

Wind energy is an important contribution of today’s technological development.

Wind energy can also be converted into mechanical and electrical energy.

In marine areas where winds blow fast, it is easy to obtain wind energy.

Air telescopes have been installed at Kutch and Okha in Gujarat, Puri in Orissa and Tutti Corin in Tamil Nadu.

From which electricity is being generated.

In India, more than 1000 MW of electricity is obtained from wind energy.

Now in our country, tidal power is also being used in the production of electrical energy.

The government has prepared many important schemes in the direction of harnessing non-traditional energy.

Due to this, the use of ocean thermal energy (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, OTEC)

and wave energy has also proved important.

(F) Flora and Fauna –

The word flora is used for plants and the word fauna is used for different species of animals.

It includes all types of wild and domesticated animals found in nature.

Plants are our main source of food.

They provide fodder for animals, fuel for burning and fibers for making clothes etc.

We also have such plants here.

From which many useful items like medicines, decorations, gum, lac and perfume are obtained.

Our forest wealth is 1/5th of the geographical area of ​​the country,

which is approximately 63.591 million hectares square km.

Forest is useful for us in many ways.

1. Wood for construction of furniture and house.

2. Raw material for paper industry.

3. Protection of wild animals.

4. To prevent adverse effects of solar radiations.

5. To maintain the balance of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere.

6. Control of Earth’s temperature and water cycle.

Various species of creatures like mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, molluscs etc.

are found in Indian fauna.

These animals are a special component of our environmental system.

We get milk, eggs and meat from animals which are a major source of protein in our food.

Wild life is a popular center of tourism and

they have a special place in the aesthetic sense of human life.

New technology to obtain energy

Our national laboratories and industrial institutes are working in the development of new non-conventional energy sources and plants.

Some of their new sources are as follows.

1. Hydrogen energy –

Hydrogen batteries and hydrogen power plants are made using hydrogen gas as the primary fuel.

The energy obtained in it can be used in industrial work, in means of transportation and in everyday life.

2 Geothermal Energy-

Geothermal hot springs are used to generate electricity and obtain heat.

3 Ocean Energy –

There has been considerable progress in wave energy technology with successful technological developments in harnessing the high waves,

tides and thermal changes received from the ocean to generate electrical energy.

( Natural resources types )

Proper care of natural resources

Our natural resources are being used continuously.

Exploitation of natural resources is increasing due to population growth and technological development.

As a result, our depletable natural resources are in danger.

Natural resources should be used keeping in mind their availability, rational use and replaceability.

In this way the approach itself is conducive to the management and conservation of natural resources.

It has been estimated that

if we continue to use coal at today’s rate, our coal reserves will be completely exhausted within this century.

Petroleum production in India is only half of its required quantity.

We have to import more than half the quantity of petroleum from abroad.

Use of natural gases is a good option in this direction,

our natural gas resources have increased tenfold in the last two decades.

Therefore, to obtain energy, non-traditional sources like solar, wind, and biomass should be used instead of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum).

And its use should be promoted.

Bio gas is produced from animal dung, human excreta, garbage, straw and dry vegetation etc.

India’s role in the development of biogas technology is leading and important.

It is a cheap, pollution-free and convenient fuel,

which is especially useful for our vast rural areas.

Management of forest and wildlife resources is a complex task.

Our forests are being destroyed at the rate of about 1.5 metric hectares every year.

A large number of wild species have either become extinct or are on the verge of extinction.

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (J.U.C.N.) has divided the endangered species into three categories from the point of view of extinction –

1. Endangered

2. Rare

3. Vulnerable LU.C.N. has circulated a list of such plants and animals globally to draw attention to endangered species.

I.U.C.N. Publication of Red Data Book has also been started,

in which information about endangered species of plants and animals is given.

Red Data Book by the Government of India.

About 81 mammals, 15 reptiles and amphibians, 30 birds and many invertebrate species have been listed in the Red Data Book by the Government of India.

Some of these are as follows-

1. Panther (cheetah),

2. Tiger,

3. Indian fox,

4. One-horned unicorn,

5. Hangul (Kashmiri Deer),

6. Chinkara,

7. Blackbuck,

8. Twelve Horned,

9. Musk Deer,

10. Wild Buffalo,

11. Gaur,

12. Indian Elephant,

13. Wild Dog,

14. Red Panda,

15. Nilgiri Langur,

16. Lion-tailed Monkey,

17. Crocodile,

18. Crocodile,

19. Python,

20. Black-necked Stork,

21. Siberian Stork etc.

( Natural resources types )

Plants And Animals

Some important steps have been taken towards proper care and management of such species of plants and animals.

Which are the following-

1. To protect the natural habitat of organisms.

Important castes and what is happening at all.

To take care of such species by keeping them in protected areas like national parks,

sanctuaries and protected biospheres.

2. To try to breed in a protected state.

3 Bringing awareness among people to understand the importance of wild animals and forests

Running the program.

4. To provide protection to wild animals under legal rules.

There are 73 national parks, 416 sanctuaries and 12 protected biospheres in India.

A special ban has been imposed on illegal buying and selling of animal skin, horns, hoofs, feathers etc.

and wild hunting.

There are some solutions to forest degradation.

(1) Afforestation (Environmental and Social Afforestation)

(2) Agricultural Afforestation

(3) Planting of aesthetic and ornamental trees.

Natural resources like water, air and soil also need proper care and management.

Often we hear and experience about water shortage.

Especially during summers, the level of underground water decreases significantly

due to which wells and hand pumps start drying up and the water supply is also reduced by the municipal corporations.

Such situations of water crisis alert us about misuse of water.

The measures for management and conservation of water resources are as follows.

(1) Supply of drinking water and water for agriculture and industries under integrated watershed planning

(2) Flood control

(3) Transferring flowing water from excess water source to lesser water source by connecting rivers.

(4) Water Ground

Identifying overexploited areas through scientific survey.

(5) artificial use of underground water

To recharge.

(6) To run complete public awareness program with individual and public participation.

Soil erosion and continuous growing of one crop reduces the fertility of the soil.

As a result the crop is produced less.

Therefore, proper land survey measures should be taken e.g.

1. Growing one species of crops one after another.

2 Growing of leguminous plants.

3. Using fertilizer and manure in appropriate quantity.

4. Growing plants that provide protection to the upper fertile layer of the soil from soil erosion caused by wind and water.

( Natural resources types )

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Author: educationallof

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