# What is Flip flop ?

## Flipflop

Flip flop –

“A digital computer needs devices which can store information.”

A flip flop is a binary storage device , it can store binary bit either 0 or 1. It has two stable States : high and low I.e. 1 , 0 .

Or

A basic sequential logic circuit is a flip flop has bistable state or two stable state , first is “0” and second is “1” .

### Type of flip flops –

1. R-S flip flop

2. D – flip flop

3. J – k flip flops

4. Master slave J-K flip flop.

### Characteristics –

flip flop is a bistable device, it has only two States 0 and 1 .

Flip flop has two outputs , one output is complement of other.

## R-S flip flop –

A flip flop is a device with two stable state. It is reset and second is set. The S-R latch is the simplest flip flop. It is also called S-R (R-S) flip flop.

In this circuit one of the transistors it Saturated and the other is cut off.

We discuss two type of R-s flip flop :

1 Transistor latch

2. diode latch

### Transistor latch using :

There are two  control input S and R

1. In first case when S = 0 , R = 0 . Then transistor T1 not working because of forward bias now T2 base find R = 0 and from Q point as 5v voltage. It T2 is saturated the T2 connected to ground and Q connect T2 Then point Q = 0 .

2. Second case R = 0 , S = 1 . S = 1 connect to transistor T1 base point T1 saturated and T1 connect to ground so Q = 0.

Now Q = 0 , R = 0 both value to comes T2 each transistor than T2 not working but transistor T1 connect to Q , so Q = 1

3. Third case R = 1 , s = 0 for value of R = 1 T2 transistor then T2 not working , but transistor T1 connect to Q so We find transistor Q = 1

Third case R = 1 ,S = 0 for value of R , T2 transistor saturated and Q connect to ground Q = 0

Then Q = 0 , s = 0 both values comes for T1 transistor but T1 not saturated Q = 0.

4. Fourth case R = 1 , s = 1 . This is called race condition .

 R S Q Comment 0 0 NC NO CHANGE 0 1 1 SET (0) 1 0 0 RESET (0) 1 1 NA NOT ALLOWED

### Diode latch R-S flip flop –

There are two types of diode latch flip flops –

1. NOR latches

2. NAND latches

#### NOR latches –

R-S (S-R) flip flop can be constructed with the help of 2 NOR gates which are available as ICs .

##### Working-

1. Let Q = 0 and Q = 1 in ( initial value) when R=0 and S = 0.

Now the inputs to hence output q = 0
similarly input to the NOR Gate B are S = 0 and q = 0 , then output Q = 1.

Hence no change in the state of ff.

2. when R = 0 , S = 1.

Now the input the NOR gate B are S=0 and Q = 1 the output Q should be 0.

Q = 0

similarly now the inputs to the NOR Gate A are R = 0 and Q = 0 hence it is output Q = 1
hence the result of the FF set .

3. when R=1 , S = 0

Now the input the NOR gate A are R = 1 and Q = 0 then the output Q should be 0 .

Q= 0

similarly now the inputs to the NOR gate B are s = 0 , Q = 0 then the output Q=1

This condition are reset.

4. When both S and R. R = 0 , S= 1
then both the output Q and Q will be forced to be in 0 state.

But Q = 0 and Q = 0 is meaningless

condition are not allowed

##### Truth table –
 R S Q Q Comment 0 0 0 1 NO CHANGE 0 1 1 0 SET 1 0 0 1 RESET 1 1 1 0 NOT ALLOWED

#### NAND latches –

1. initially let Q = 0 , Q = 1 suppose R = 1 and S = 1 , Then input to the NAND Gate A are S = 1 , Q = 1 , so that the output Q = should be in o state.

Q = 0

similarly the NAND Gate B are R = 1 , Q = 0
Then the outputs becomes Q should be 1 .

Q = 1

The condition is no change.

2. when R = 1 , S = 0.

when the inputs S = 0 and Q = 1 with the NAND Gate A form the output becomes Q should be 0.

Q = 0

similarly the NAND gate B are R = 1 and Q = 0 .

Then the output become Q should be 0.
Q = 1.

3. When S = 1 and R = 0.

Now the gate III condition just opposite. Then it is obvious that the flip flop resets.

I.e. Q becomes 0.

4. when R = 0 , S = 0 .

Then the don’t case condition lead to the result that Q = 1 , Q = 1 , but this is meaningless.

The condition is not allowed.

##### Truth table –
 R S Q Q COMMENT 1 1 0 1 NO CHANGE 1 0 1 0 SET 0 1 0 1 RESET 0 0 1 1 NOT ALLOWED

## Clocked flip-flop –

“This could be achieved with a modified version of the flip flop called as a clocked RS FF.”

It is very useful to add clock to SR flip flop to shown this figure.

### Action Of Clocked R-S Flip Flop-

1. When the clock input (CK) is low condition both the AND Gates are disabled.
Thus their output remains low (0). This makes S1 = 0 and R1 = 0 the state of the FF will not change .

2.When CLK = 1 , then the AND GATES are enabled and the S , R inputs are able to reach at the inputs of the RS FF .

Depending on the states of R and S inputs the flip flops can SET RESET .

All possible states of R and S along with the corresponding state of the output.

### Working –

Case I When CLK = 0

1. S = 0 , CLK = 0 , Then S1 = 1 similarly R = 1 , CLK = 0 , R1 = 1 in NAND Gate.

S1 ,R1 NC condition.

2. S = 0 , CLK = 0 then S = 1

And R = 1 , CLK = 0 , Then R1 = 1 NC condition

3. S = 1 , CLK = 0 Then S1 = 1

R = 0 , CLK = 0 Then R1 = 1

4. S = 1 , R = 1 , then NC change.

CASE II . When CLK = 1

1. s = 0 , CLK = 1 Then S1 = 1
R = 1, CLK = 1 Then R1 = 0 and
We know S1 = 1 , R1 = 0 is called reset condition Q = 0

2. S = 1, CLK = 1 Then S1 =0
R = 0 , CLK = 1 Then R1 = 1
and we know S1 = 0 , R1 = 1 is called set condition Q = 1

3. S = 0 , CLK = 1 then S1 = 1
R = 0 , CLK = 1 then R1 = 1 and
S1 and R1 = 1 Then Q = no change.

### Truth Table –

 CLK S R S1 R1 Q 0 0 0 1 1 NC 0 0 1 1 1 NC 0 1 0 1 1 NC 0 1 1 1 1 NC 1 0 1 1 0 0 (RESET) 1 1 0 0 1 1 (SET) 1 0 0 1 1 NC 1 1 1 0 0 NOT ALLOWED

### Timing diagram –

1. race condition.

2. level locking (means only one Level work (high).

## D flip flop –

“Clocked RS flip flop can be modified to a better version called as D-type flip-flop.”

This flip flop possesses only one data input. The D flip flop is widely used , it is also know as a data or delay flip flop.

### Working –

CASE I .

When D = 1 then S = 1 and R = 0 hence as clock goes high , the flip-flop will be Set or Q will become 1

Q = 1 .

CASE II.

If D = 0 then S = 0 and R = 1 Hence as the clock goes high the flip-flop will RESET
Q = 0

### Edge Triggered Flip Flop –

The clock input pulses and corresponding output at the differentiating circuit. This output consists of positive and negative going spikes.

There are two types –

#### 1. Positive edge triggered FF –

The flip-flop responds for 0 to 1 change of the clock pulse such a flip flop is called as a positive edge triggered flip flop.

#### 2. Negative Edge Triggered Flip Flop –

A circuit which respond to 0 to 1 change of the clock pulse or at the fulling edge is called as a negative edge triggered flip flop.

#### Symbol & Circuit Diagram –

CASE I . When CLK = 0 then each value of D use find the output no change.

CASE II. When CLK = 1

1. When CLK = 1 Then D value do not. Then output find NC condition.

2. IF CLK is falling edge output remains find NC condition.

3. If CLK is rising edge then D = 1 then find output Q = 1 .

4. If CLK is rising edge and D = 0, then find output Q = 0.

#### Truth Table –

 CLK D Q 0 X NC 1 X NC DOWN X NC UP 0 0 UP 1 1

In this output change only on the rising or falling edge of CLK .

### Preset And Clear –

It should be clear that the output of a flip flop changes whenever a clock pulse is applied.

These leads which help to set or clear (reset) the flip-flop are independent of clock . This will be clear form the discussion to follow.

#### Preset –

Preset is called “direct set” means unclocked.

#### Clear –

Clear is called “direct reset“.

#### Working –

1. when preset = clear = 0 then gate P and Q both don’t case their second output is not allowed Q = * .

2. when preset = 0 , clear = 1 then R = 0 , but Q gate depend upon their second input in the NAND Gate latch , don’t care Q = 1.

3. when preset = 1 clear = 0 then S = 0 , so don’t care Q = 1 and similarly Q = 1 (Reset ).

4. when preset = 1 = clear then if CLK = 0 for P gate input are 1 there R = 1 similarly S = 1 then output NC condition.

5.Preset = clear = 1 then CLK = 1
A’ = 0 , Preset = 1 then R = 0
B’ = 0 , clear = 1 then S = 0

6. Preset = clear = 1 then CLK = low
A’ = x then R = 1
B’ = x then S = 1
NC condition.

7. Preset = 1 = clear then CLK = high
D= 0 , CLK = High , A’ = 1 , Preset = 1 , R = 1
And D’ = 1 ,CLK = high, B’ = 0 , clear = 1 , S =0.

8. Preset = 1 = clear then CLK = high
D = 1 , CLK = high , A’ = 0, Preset = 0, R= 0
D’ = 0 , CLK = high , B’ = 1, clear = 1, S = 1
1 set.

#### Truth table –

 Preset clear CLK D Q 0 0 x x * 0 1 x x 1 1 0 x x 0 1 1 0 x NC 1 1 1 x NC 1 1 down x NC 1 1 up 0 0 1 1 up 1 1

#### Propagation Delay-

Propagation delay is the amount of time taken for the output of a gate.

o

A flip flop to change State after the input changes states. Output changing 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 .

#### Setup Time –

The setup time t is the minimum time for which the data bit must be present before the clock pulse arrives.

#### Hold Time –

Hold time is the minimum time for which the data must remain present after the edge of the clock pulse.

## J-K flip flop –

“A J-K flip flop is a modification of the R-S flip flop in that uncertain state of the RS type is defined in the JK type.”

Or

“J-K flip flop is an essential building block of sequential circuits such as counters and shift registers.”

The data at the J and K inputs of the JK flip flop controls (set and reset) output.

### Working –

1. When J = K= 0 (inactive State)
Both J and K = 0 clock pulse has no effect O/P.

Then R = 1 , S =1 then o/p is same NC condition.

2. When J = 0 , K = 1 (reset stage)
When J = 0 the o/p of AND GATE corresponding to J becomes 0.

example – R = 1 , S = 0 then the o/p Q is reset condition means Q = 0.

3. Set state ( J = 1 , K = 0 )
This case Q = 1, the AND gate responding to k becomes 0 ,

example R = 0 and S = 1 Therefore Q = 0 and Q = 1 it is called set condition.
Q = 1

4. Toggle stage

J = 1 , K = 1

In this case R = 0 , S = 0 , toggle Mode.

### Truth Table –

 CLK J K Q 0 x x NC 1 x x NC Down x x NC X 0 0 NC Up 0 1 RESET (0) Up 1 0 SET (1) Up 1 1 Toggle (0)

### Timing Diagram –

In RS flip flop S = R = 1 gives unpredictable state of the output. In a JK flip flop J = k = 1 is permissible. In this condition the state output is changed , complement of the previous state is available .

If in the previous stage Q is 0 it becomes 1 and vice versa :

If a JK flip flop is level triggered ,the output is not stable with J = K = 1 so long as the clock is high . The output goes on changing its State to avoid such oscillations an R-C circuit is incorporated in the clock input circuit to make a J-K flip flop edge triggered , gives stable o/p.

## Master slave JK flip flop –

“A JK master slave flip flop consists of two Gates or clocked RS flip flops called as a master and a slave.”

Output of the second flip flop (slave) is (fed) back to the input of the first (master) as shown fig .

When clock is high master is active and slave is inactive.

When clock is low master inactive but slaves is active.

### Working-

1. Set Conditions –

J = 1 , K = 1 and clock = high , if Q = 0 , Q = 1 (previous state) then master will set in R = 1, S = 0 and slave will inactive .

When clock = low

In case master inactive but slave FF active and find input R = 1, s = 0 then R’ = 0 , S’ = 1 and output Q = 1 , Q = 0 , it is called set condition .

2. Reset Conditions
J = 0 , k = 1 clock = high in preset condition Q = 1, Q = 0 of flip flop.

During the high clock signal master will reset R = 0 , S = 1 but output remains same ( in preset condition Q = 0 ,Q = 1 ) as the slave will be inactive when clock is low .

When the clock signal is low : then master will be inactive and slaves be active so flip flop remains find reset it means Q = 0 , Q = 1.

#### Toggle condition –

J = K =1
In this above condition Q = 0 , Q = 1 (pre) condition of flip flop.

During the high clock signal master will toggle (means R = 0 , S = 1) so R= 1 , S = 0 and output remains same (Q = 0 , Q = 1) as the slave will be inactive when clock is high.

when low clock signal arrives master will be inactive and slave will be active which toggle the flip-flop output Q = 1 , Q = 0.

#### Truth table –

 CLK J K Q Q COMMENT 1 1 0 1 0 SET 1 0 1 0 1 RESET 1 1 1 1 0 TOGGLE

### Truth Table-

 PRESET CLEAR CLK J K Q 0 0 x x x * 0 1 x x x 1 1 0 x x x 0 1 1 x 0 0 NC 1 1 up to down 0 1 0 1 1 up to down 1 0 1 1 1 up to down 1 1 Toggle

What is the Op Amp ?

##### Author: educationallof

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