Voice of English grammar, types, examples

Voice of English grammar

Voice of English grammar –

Types of voice –

There are two types of voice

(A) Active Voice ( कर्तृवाच्य):

A person denoted by the subject is said to do something.

(कर्ता द्वारा इंगित व्यक्ति अथवा वस्तु द्वारा कुछ कार्य किया जाता है।)

(B) Passive voice ( कर्मवाच्य):

In this voice a person/thing is said to suffer some thing from some other person/ thing.

[इस वाच्य में किसी वस्तु/व्यक्ति पर अन्य व्यक्ति/वस्तु द्वारा कुछ किया जाता है।]

Examples:

Active voice: Ram/ is singing/a song.

Structure- S + V + O

कर्ता +  क्रिया  +कर्म

Passive voice: A song/is being sung / by Ram.

Structure – Object + V + by + S

कर्म  +  क्रिया +  by  +  कर्ता

You will note that.

(a) In passive sentence the positions of subject and object are interchanged.

[आप देखेंगे कि passive वाक्य में active के subject और object की स्थितियाँ बदल जाती हैं ]

(b) The verb form is changed.

( क्रिया रूप बदल जाता है।)

(c) Before subject by is used.

[ कर्ता के पहले by लगाते हैं ।]

(d) If the subject/ object is a pronoun its form is also changed.

[ यदि कर्ता/ कर्म कोई सर्वनाम है तो उसका स्वरूप भी बदल जाता है। ]

Ex. (i) I/will beat/him. (Active)

He/will be beaten/by me.(Passive)

(ii) She/has not done/this.(Active)

This has not been done/by her. (Passive)

Subject form Object form
I me
We us
You you
He him
She her
They them
It It
Who whom

(e) of the twelve verb forms (tenses) in active only eight can be changed into passive.

[12 क्रिया रूपों (काल) में से आठ का ही Passive रूप संभव है।]

Tense Verb form in active-voice. Verb form in passive-voice
Present simple 1st form or 1st form + s/es [क्रिया का पहला रूप + s/es] is/are/am+ 3rd form
Past simple 2nd form of the verb [ क्रिया का दूसरा रूप] was/were + 3rd form
Future simple will/shall+ 1st form will/shall be + 3rd form
Present continuous

or progressive

is/are/am + ing form is/are/am being + 3rd form
Past continuous was/were + ing form was/were being + 3rd form
Present perfect have/has+ 3rd form have/has been + 3rd form
Past perfect had 3rd form had been + 3rd form
Future perfect will/shall have +3rd form will/shall have been + 3rd form
Modal modal+ 1st form modal be+ 3rd form.

(f) From the chart you will notice that.

(i) Helping verb is used as per the tense.

(ii) 3rd form of the verb in used in all tense in passive.

चार्ट से आप देखेंगे कि –

(i) सहायक क्रिया tense के अनुसार प्रयुक्त होती है।

(ii) क्रिया का तीसरा रूप (Past participle) passive में सदैव प्रयुक्त होता है।

(g) ‘By‘ is used before the subject.

[कर्ता के पहले by का प्रयोग होता है ।]

(h) If the subject is vague or unknown, we omit ‘by+ subject’. We omit ‘by+ subject’ also when the subject is very well known or understood.

[यदि subject अस्पष्ट या अज्ञात हो तो हम by + subject’ को छोड़ देते हैं। यदि subject सुपरिचित या जाना हुआ हो तो भी by + subject’ छोड़ देते हैं ।]

Ex. 1. They broke the jar. (Active)

The jar was broken.(Passive)

2. The police will arrest you.(Active)

You will be arrested.(Passive)

3. Somebody has cut the tree.(Active)

(Passive)

The tree has been cut.(Passive)

4. People hate liars.(Active)a

Liars are hated.(Passive)

इस प्रकार संक्षेप में Active से Passive बनाने में क्रमश: निम्नलिखित चार बातें ध्यान रखने योग्य हैं:

पहले (i) Obj. (sub. के रूप में )

फिर (ii) H. V. + be

फिर (iii) V. III

फिर (iv) by + sub (obj. के रूप में )

Passive Voice में निम्न दो बातें अवश्य होंगी –

(i) be (is, am, are, was, were, being, been) अवश्य होगी।

(आवश्यकता अनुसार अन्य सहायक क्रिया भी हो सकती है।)

(ii) Verb का 3rd form अवश्य होगा।

(i) You should understand that passive voice is used when we want to emphasise the object rather than the subject.

[यह समझना चाहिए कि passive-voice का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है, जब हम object m subject से कहीं अधिक जोर देना चाहते हैं।]

INDEFINITE TENSE

1. Present (or Simple) Indefinite Tense

Example:
Active Passive
1. I/take/coffee. Coffee/is taken/by me
2. He/reads/a book.. A book/is read/by him.
3. You/help/Mohan. Mohan/is helped/by you.
4. Mr. Verma/teaches/English. English/is taught by Mr. Verma.
5. Boys/study/five subjects. Five subjects/are studied/by boys.
Exercise 1

[Order – object-am/is/are + Verb III + by subject.]

1. They see a tiger.

2. The carpenter makes a table..

3. He shuts the gate.

4. We love our parents.

5. The soldiers dig the trench.

6. You copy the lesson.

7. His brothers polish shoes.

8. Boys fly kites.

Answer

1. A tiger is seen (by them).

2. A table is made by a carpenter.

3. The gate is shut by him.

4. Our parents are loved by us.

5. The trench is dug by the soldiers.

6. The lesson is copied by you.

7. Shoes are polished by his brothers.

8. Kites are flown by boys.

2. Past Indefinite Tense

Example:

1. He/killed/a tiger.(Active)

A tiger/was killed/by him.(Passive)

2. Srishti/accepted/my advice. (Active)

My advice/was accepted/by Srishti.(Passive)

Exercise 2

[Order – Object+ was/were + Verb III+by+ subject.]

1. Ram solved all questions.

2. The gardener watered the plants.

3. His friend drove the car.

4. He turned out the servant.

5. Ranu knit a sweater yesterday.

6. Mr. Sharma taught me last year.

7. My mother told Mohan an interesting story.

8. We helped you.

Ans.

1. All questions were solved by Ram.

2 The plants were watered by the gardener.

3. The car was driven by his friend.

4. The servant was turned out by him.

5. A sweater was knit by Ranu yesterday.

6. I was taught by sharma last year.

7. Mohan was told an interesting story by my mother.

Or

An interesting story was told to Mohan by my mother.

8. You were helped by us.

3. Future Indefinite Tense

Example:

1. He/will read a book.(Active)

A book/will be read/by him.(Passive)

2. We/shall eat/rice. (Active)

Rice/will be eaten/by us.(Passive)

Exercise 3

[Order – Object + shall/will+be+ Verb III+by+ subject.]

1. We shall watch the match.

2. Your brother will paint this picture.

3. She will drop me a letter.

4. The servant will bring tea early in the morning.

5. You will take your meal..

6. They will make Ranu captain of the cricket team.

7. The scientist will find out the answer.

8. Neha will show her classical dances in Bhopal Auditorium.

Ans.

1. The match will be watched by us.

2. This picture will be painted by your brother.

3. A letter will be dropped to me by her.

4. The tea will be brought by the servant early in the morning.

5. Your meal will be taken by you

6. Ranu will be made captain of the cricket team.

7. The answer will be found out of by the scientist.

8. Her classical dances will be shown by Neha in Bhopal Auditorium,

(Voice of English grammar)

CONTINUOUS TENSE

4. Present Continuous Tense

Example:

1. He/is making/kites.(Active)

Kites/are being made/by him.(Passive)

2. I/am flying/a kite.(Active)

A kite/is being flown/by me.(Passive)

Exercise 4

[Order – Object+am/is/are + being + verb III+by+ subject.]

1. He is singing a song.

2 I am inviting the whole staff.

3. The teacher is taking attendance in the second period.

4. The green grocer is selling fruits.

5. You are lending money.

6. We are collecting stamps.

7. Father is not spending money.nt out

8. The lamb is drinking water from the down stream.

Answer

1. A song is being sung by him.

2. The whole staff is being invited (by me).

3. Attendance is being taken by the teacher in the second period.

4. Fruits are being sold (by the green-grocer).

5. Money is being lent by you.

6. Stamps are being collected by us.

7. Money is not being spent by father.

8. Water is being drunk from the dawn stream by the lamb.

 5. Past Continuous Tense

Example:

1. He/was calling/you.(Active)

You/were being called/by him.(Passive)

2. I/was helping/him.(Active)

He/was being helped/by me.(Passive)

Exercise 5

[Order – Object+ was/were being+ verb III+ (other words) by + subject]

1. We were plucking flowers.

2 They were selling their horses.

3. He was wearing old shoes.

4. His father was bringing mangoes

5 The teacher was teaching Physics.

6. You were throwing the balls.

7. I was writing a letter.

8. She was making dolls.

Ans.

1. Flowers were being plucked by us.

2. Their horses were being sold.

3. Old shoes were being worn by him.

4. Mangoes were being brought by his father.

5. Physics was being taught by the teacher.

6. The balls were being thrown by you.

7. A letter was being written by me.

8. Dolls were being made by her.

(Voice of English grammar)

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

इस Tense की Passive voice नहीं होती। यह सिर्फ Active voice में ही प्रयोग में आता है।

(Voice of English grammar)

PERFECT TENSE

6. Present Perfect Tense

Example:

1. I/have seen/a bird.(Active)

A bird/has been seen/by me.(Passive)

2. She has sent a letter.(Active)

A letter/has been sent by her.(Passive)

Exercise 6

[Order – Object + have/has + been + verb III +by+ subject.]

1. My friends have helped me.

2 They have done their work.

3. He has hidden the fact.

4. The branches of the tree have caught the kite.

5. We have won the match.

6. I have bought a car.

7. Our teacher has written three books.

8. Somebody has taken away my book.

Ans.

1. I have been helped by my friends.

2. Their work has been done by them.

3. The fact has been hidden by him.

4. The kite has been caught into the branches of the tree,

5. The match has been won by us.

6. A car has been bought by me.

7. Three books have been written by our teacher.

8. My book has been taken away

7. Past Perfect Tense

Example:

1. I/had finished/my work.(Active)

My work/had been finished/by me.(Passive)

2. She/had cooked/the dinner.(Active)

The dinner/had been cooked/by her . (Passive)

Exercise 7

[Order – Object + had been verb III by + subject.]

1. You had written the letter.

2. He had taken the meal.

3. The peon had rung the bell.

4. The washerman had washed the clothes.

5. The boys had broken the furniture.

6. You had given a book to me.

7. The British had developed a nice system of education in India.

8. The merchants had reduced prices of essential things.

Answer

1. The letter had been written by you.

2. The meal had been taken by him.

3. The bell had been rung. (by the peon).

4. The clothes had been washed (by the washerman).

5. The furniture had been broken by the boys.

6. I had been given a book by you.

Or

A book had been given to me by you.

7. A nice system of education had been developed in india by the British.

8. Prices of essential things had been reduced by the merchants.

8. Future Perfect Tense

Example:

1. The servant/will have rung/the bell.(Active)

The bell/will have been rung/by the servant.(Passive)

2. I/shall have played/football.(Active)

Football/will have been played/by me.(Passive)

Exercise 8

[Order- Object+shall/will + have been + verb III +by+ subject.]

1. A cat will have killed a rat.

2 I shall have bought so many books.

3. That boy will have stolen my chains.

4. You will have solved the sums.

5. The child will have drunk the milk.

6. We shall have earned a lot of money.

7. He will have called me.

8. Mohan will have learnt English.

Ans.

1. A rat will have been killed by a cat.

2. So many books will have been bought by me.

3. My chains will have been stolen by that boy.

4. The sums will have been solved by you.

5. The milk will have been drunk by the child.

6. A lot of money will have been earned by us.

7. I shall have been called by him.

8. English will have been learnt by Mohan.

(Voice of English grammar)

PASSIVE OF INTEROGATIVES SENTENCES

(i) When a question begins with do/docs/did, the sentence structure in passive voice is:

[जब किसी प्रश्न का प्रारम्भ do/does / did से होता है, तब कर्मवाच्य में वाक्य का स्वरूप होगा : ]

[A form of be+ object + verb (III form) +by+ subject.]

(Is/Am/Are/Was/Were)

Example:

1. Do they speak Tamil?(Active)

Is Tamil spoken (by them)?(Passive)

2 Does he cut hair?(Active)

Is hair cut by him?(Passive)

3. Did you invite him?(Active)

Was he invited?(Passive)

(ii) If the question begins with will/shall or any other model (having V.I.) the passive structure will be as follows:

[ यदि प्रश्न will/shall या किसी अन्य Model से प्रारम्भ हुआ है और वाक्य में क्रिया का पहला रूप है तो Passive में वाक्य रचना इस प्रकार होगी।]

[Will/Shall/Model + object + be +V. III+by+ subject.]

Example:

1. Will you spend money?(Active)

Will money be spent by you?(Passive)

2. Can we send this big parcel by air?(Active)

Can this big parcel be sent by air?(Passive)

(iii) If the question begins with Is/Are/Am/Was/Were, (having V+ing), the passive structure will be as follows :

[ यदि प्रश्न Is/Are/Am/Was/Were से प्रारम्भ हुआ और वाक्य में V+ ing है, तो Passive में वाक्य रचना इस प्रकार होगी-]

[Is/Are/Am/Was/Were object being + VIII+by+ subject.]

Example:

1. Is he playing football?(Active)

Is football being played by him?(Passive)

2. Was Abdul helping his friends?(Active)

Were his friends being helped by Abdul?(Passive)

(iv) If the question begins with Have/Has/Had (having V.III), the passive construction will be as follows:

[ यदि प्रश्न Have Has/Had से प्रारम्भ हुआ है और वाक्य में V. III है तो  Passive में वाक्य रचना इस प्रकार होगी।]:

[Have/Has/Had+ Object+ been + V. III+by+ subject.]

Example:

1. Have you finished your meal?(Active)

Has your meal been finished?(Passive)

2 Had they posted the letter?(Active)

Had the letter been posted? (Passive)

(V) If the question begins with a Wh-word (why, where etc.) the wh-word will precede the helping verb i.e. it will come in the beginning of the sentence.

The rest of the sentence will, remain as usual as the passive interrogative sentence.

If who cames in the beginning of the active voice, ‘By whom’ will came in the beginning of the passive voice.

[ यदि प्रश्न Wh शब्द जैसे- why, where इत्यादि से प्रारम्भ होता है तो वह wh-word वाक्य में सबसे पहले आएगा, शेष वाक्य वैसा ही Passive Question रहेगा।

यदि वाक्य में ‘Who’ पहले है तो passive में पहले ‘By whom’ हो जाएगा।]

Example:

1. Where does Mohan write a letter?(Active)

When is a letter written by Mohan?(Passive)

2. Who wrote the letter?(Active)

By whom was the letter written?(Passive)

Exercise 9

Change the following sentences into passive voice:

1. Who did this?

2. Why did your brother write such a letter?

3. Shall I ever forget those happy days?

4. Does she sing a song?

5. Did Ram kill Ravan?

6. Is Tom writing a letter?

7. Can a lion cat grass?

8. Why did they rise this question?

9. Who broke the news?

10. When do they clear the mail ?

Ans.

1. By whom was this done?

2. Why was such a letter written by your brother?

3. Will those happy days ever be forgotten?

4. Is a song sung by her ?

5. Was Ravan killed by Ram?

6. Is a letter being written by Tom?

7. Can grass be eaten by a lion?

8. Why was this question risen by them?

9. By whom was the news broken?

10. When is the mail cleared?

PASSIVE OF NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In this form the passive is done as in affirmative sentences, only the ‘not’is put between the auxiliary and the past participle.

[‘Negative’ वाक्यों को passive में बदलने हेतु सभी नियम ‘affirmative जैसे ही होते हैं, केवल सहायक क्रिया और past participle के बीच ‘not’ का प्रयोग होता है।]

Example:

1. Some members did not attend the meeting.(Active)

The meeting was not attended by some members. (Passive)

2 The shopkeeper did not reduce prices.(Active)

Prices were not reduced by the shopkeeper.(Passive)

3. Minister will not light the lamps.(Active)

The lamps will not be lighted by Minister.(Passive)

( Voice of English grammar )

Exercise 10

[Order – Object+helping verb+not+ (be/being/been) + verb III+by+ subject.]

1. We do not hate the poor.

2. He did not kill the rats.

3. You will not buy a cycle for me.

4. He was not helping me.

5. They have not done their work.

6. The nurse had not left me before the doctor came.

7. I shall have not bought so many books.

8. She is not cooking my meal these days.

Ans.

1. The poor are not hated by us.

2. The rats were not killed by him.

3. A cycle will not be bought by your for me.

4. I was not being helped by him.

5. Their work has not been done (by them).

6. I had not been left by the nurse before the docter came.

7. So many books will have not been bought by me.

8. My meal is not being cooked by her these days.

( Voice of English grammar)

PASSIVE VOICE OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

An imperative sentence starts with the first form of the verb. Its passive voice is made by using the following structure:

[Imperative sentences के प्रारम्भ में ही क्रिया का मूल रूप होता है। इनका passive Voice निम्नलिखित structure के आधार पर बनता है।]

[Let + object+be+ 3rd form + (any other words)]

Example:

Put the box here.(Active)

Let the box be put here.(Passive)

Don’t open the box.(Active)

Let the box not be opened.(Passive)

Exercise 11

Change the following into passive voice:

1. Make two kites.

2. Do not spend all the money.

3. Forget all your sorrow.

4. Write fresh letters in english.

5. Do not waste your time.

6. Open the door.

7. Shut up your mouth.

8. Never disobey your parents.

9. Dig a hole near the wall.

10. Buy some good quality wool.

11. Let her cook food.

12. Let us forget the past.

Ans.

1. Let two kites be made.

2. Let all the money not be spent.

3. Let all your sorrow be forgotten.

4. Let fresh letters be written in english.

5. Let your time not be wasted.

6. Let the door be opened.

7. Let your mouth be shut up.

8. Let your parents never be disobeyed.

9. Let a hole be dug near the wall.

10. Let some good quality wool be bought.

11. Let food be cooked by her.

12. Let the past be forgotten (by us).

(Voice of English grammar)

PASSIVE OF TWO OR MORE OBJECTS

When there are two or more objects in active voice, then the personal object is made the subject in the passive.

[ दो या अधिक object से युक्त वाक्यों को passive Voice में बदलते समय personal object को subject बनाया जाता है।]

Example:

1. Hari gave me a pen.(Active)

I was given a pen by Hari.(Passive)

2. Someone gave mother a letter.(Active)

Mother was given a letter.(Passive)

The other object will be used as a subject only when it is needed to stress that one.

[ दूसरे object को कर्ता के रूप में तभी प्रयुक्त किया जाता है, जब उसे विशेष महत्व देना हो ।]

( Voice of English grammar)

QUESTION FROM BOARD PAPERS

Change the following sentences into passive voice:

1. I am buying mangoes.

Ans. Mangoes are being bought by me.

2. Let flowers not be plucked.

Ans. Do not pluck flowers.

3. Who wrote this beautiful letter?

Ans. By whom was this beautiful letter written?

4. Rupali does her homework in time.

Ans. Her homework is done in time by Rupali.

5. They elected a hung parliament..

Ans. A hung parliament was elected.

6. We must uproot corruption from our country.

Ans. Corruption must be uprooted from our country.

7. I gave her good advice.

Ans. She was given good advice by me.

8. At nine o’clock we close the shop.

Ans. The shop is closed by us at 9 O’clock.

9. He will sell his car.

Ans. His car will be sold.

10. I sold my bicycle.

Ans. My bicycle was sold.

11. Summon the fire brigade.

Ans. Let the fire brigade be summoned.

12. Who teaches you English?

Ans. By whom are you taught English?

13. What did you buy?

Ans. What was bought by you

14. He likes mangocs.

Ans. Mangoes are liked by him.

15. This work will be done by Mohan.

Ans. Mohan will do this work.

16. They found him guilty of murder.

Ans. He was found guilty of murder.

17. She can not befool me now.

Ans. I can not be befooled by her now.

18. They asked the boys to wait.

Ans. The boys were asked by them to wait.

19. Summon the fire-brigade.

Ans. Let the fire-brigade be summoned.

20. They found him guilty of murder.

Ans. He was found guilty of murder.

21. We admire the brave.

Ans. The brave are admired by us.

22. He likes mangoes.

Ans. Mangoes are liked by him.

23. What did you buy?

Ans. What was bought by you.

24. People do not play cricket in America.

Ans. Cricket is not played in America.

25. Who broke this jug?

Ans. By whom was this jug broken?

26. We expect happy news.

Ans. Happy news is expected by us.

27. Never tell lies.

Ans. Let lies never be told.

28. People celebrate Diwali all over India

Ans. Diwali is celebrated all over India.

( Voice of English grammar )

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