Tense Chart in English , Definition, type, examples

Tense Chart in English

Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples

ABOUT TENSE –

Tense is the form of a verb which shows the time of an action or state in the present, past or future.

TYPES OF TENSE –

There are four tense forms that verbs take such as –

(i) Simple / Indefinite,

(iii) Perfect and

(ii) Progressive or Continuous,

(iv) Perfect continuous.

काल क्रिया के उस रूप को कहते हैं, जब वह किसी कार्य या दशा के समय (वर्तमान, भूत या भविष्य) को प्रकट करने के लिये होता है।

किसी क्रिया के काल को चार रूपों में व्यक्त किया जा सकता है। यथा –

(i) सामान्य/अनिश्चित,

(ii) निरन्तर या लगातार,

(iii) पूर्ण एवं

(iv) पूर्ण-अपूर्ण ।]

PRESENT TENSE

( Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples )

(a) Simple Present or Present Indefinite Tense

Structure Subject + verb (1st form ) / verb (1st form) + s/es

1. To express habitual action, custom or character.

[ रस्म, आदत या स्वभाव, रीति आदि की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए।।

Ex. (i) Roger goes to church every Sunday.

(ii) College begins at ten o’clock.

(iii) We play cricket. 15

2. To express permanent truth or facts.

[शाश्वत सत्य अथवा तथ्यों की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए |

Ex. (i) The sun rises in the east.

(ii) Water boils at 100°C.

3. To express a fact that is true at the time of speaking.

[ ऐसे तथ्यों की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए जो बोलने के समय सत्य हों ।]

Ex.- Aplatform ticket costs 50 paise.

4. To describe events as they are actually going on at the given moment. It is often used in running commentaries during sports events.

[किसी समय विशेष में घटित हो रही घटना को उसी रूप में अभिव्यक्त करने हेतु इसका प्रयोग विभिन्न खेल स्पर्धाओं की running commentary में किया जाता है।

Ex.- Ashok passes the ball to Ravi and Ravi throws it right on the stumps.

5. To express planned action in the future.

[ भविष्य हेतु निर्दिष्ट किसी कार्य को बताने हेतु |]

Ex. — (i) We arrive in New Delhi at 11 A.M. on Monday.

(ii) He leaves for Mumbai by Archana Airlineste

6. It is used to describe a past event in a vivid or dramatic manner. So it is called historic present’,

[ इसका प्रयोग भूतकाल में घटित किसी घटना के नाटकीय वर्णन हेतु किया जाता है। अत: इसे ‘historic present’ भी कहते हैं ]

Ex.- (i) The English attack the Country and rule over it.

(ii) Othello comes forward and holds Desdemona by the neck.

7. (a) In simple present form the first form of verb is generally used.

[Simple present रूप में सामान्यतया क्रिया का 1st form प्रयुक्त होता है।]

(b) In case of a subject being third person singular number, s/es is added to verb (v+s/es).

[ यदि कर्त्ता third person एक वचन हो तो क्रिया के साथ s/es जोड़ा जाता है।]

(c) In negative transformations do not / does not is used.

[इसे negative में बदलने हेतु do not / does not का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(d) In interrogative form do/does is used in the beginning of a statement.

[ इसके interrogative form में do / does का प्रयोग वाक्य के प्रारम्भ में किया जाता है। एवं वाक्य के अंत में प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह लगाया जाता है।

Ex. (i) Ram goes to Agra.

Ram does not go to Agra.

Does Ram go to Agra ?

(ii) Birds fly in the sky.

Birds do not fly in the sky.

Do birds fly in the sky ?

Note – Students should note that the present simple affirmative has no auxiliary verb.

[नोट – छात्रों को जानना चाहिए कि present simple सकारात्मक वाक्य में सहायक क्रिया नहीं होती ।।

( Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples )

(b) Present Continuous Tense

This form of tense suggests that the action is actually happening or in progress at the moment.This is therefore the real present.

Structure –  Subject+ is/am/are + (verb + ing)

[काल का यह रूप बतलाता है कि वर्तमान में कार्य वास्तव में हो रहा है अथवा प्रगति पर है। जिन वाक्यों के अन्त में रहा है/ रही है का प्रयोग होता है, उन्हें काल के इस रूप में जाना जा सकता है। इसलिए यह tense वास्तविक वर्तमान को व्यक्त करता है। ]

In negative form ‘not’ is used after helping/auxiliary verb is/am/are. In interrogative sentences, helping verb is / am/are is put in the beginning.

[ इसके negative में सहायक क्रिया is / am/are के पश्चात् ‘not’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है interrogative में is/am/are का प्रयोग वाक्य के प्रारम्भ में होता है ।।

Ex. Shubham is sleeping in the room.

Negative : Shubham is not sleeping in the room.

Interrogative: Is Shubham sleeping in the room?

2. It is also used to describe an action that is in progress and will be continued but not necessarily going on at the time of speaking.

[इसका प्रयोग किसी ऐसी घटना/कार्य को बताने हेतु किया जाता है जो हो रही है एवं भविष्य में भी जारी रहेगी, किन्तु यह आवश्यक नहीं कि बोलते समय वह कार्य जारी हो।]

Ex. – The college authorities are constructing a new hostel.

3. It is sometimes used to express one’s plans to take place in the near future.

[ कभी-कभी इसका प्रयोग निकट भविष्य में कार्यरूप में परिणत होने वाली किसी योजना को अभिव्यक्त करने हेतु किया जाता है ।]

Ex. (i) He is visiting the town tomorrow.

(ii) I am meeting the Chief Minister tomorrow morning.

4. When present continuous form is used with always, constantly, regularly, repeatedly etc., it often suggests disapproval.

[जब इसका प्रयोग always, constantly, regularly, repeatedly आदि शब्दों के साथ होता है, तब यह अस्वीकृति, नापसन्दगी का बोध कराता है।

Ex.- The boys are always complaining about the food.

5. There are a number of verbs which are not normally used in the present continuous form.

[ ऐसी अनेक क्रियाएँ हैं, जिनका प्रयोग सामान्यतया present continuous रूप में नहीं किया जाता ।]

These are

(i) Verbs of perception. [ अनुभूति को व्यक्त करने वाली क्रियाएँ]

Ex.-see, hear, smell.

(ii) Verbs which express feelings / states of mind.

[ ऐसी क्रियाएँ जो भावनाओं की अभिव्यक्ति करती हैं ।]

Ex.—want, desire, wish, refuse, forgive, care, hate, like, dislike, admire etc.

(iii) Verbs suggesting process of thinking.

[विचार प्रक्रिया की द्योतक क्रियाएँ ॥

Ex. think, feel, know, mean, suppose etc.

(iv) Verbs denoting possession. [ स्वामित्व या अधिकार की द्योतक क्रियाएँ ॥

Ex. have, own, owe, belong, possess.

(v) Verbs such as – contain, consist, keep, cost, seem.

[कुछ अन्य क्रियाएँ यथा – contain, consist, keep, cost, seem]

6. When some of the verbs listed above are used in the present continuous form, their meanings change.

[जब उपर्युक्त क्रियाओं का प्रयोग continuous form में किया जाता है, तब उनका अर्थ परिवर्तित हो जाता है।]

Ex. – (i) (a) I see a temple on that hill.

(b) I am seeing the principal at 3P.M. (visiting)

(ii) (a) i think the committee will reject his appeal.

(b) He is thinking seriously of resigning.(considering).

( Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples )

(c) Present Perfect Tense

This tense expresses actions and events completed in the past. But what is said has a current relevance, some link with the present.

[ यह काल उन कार्यों एवं घटनाओं को व्यक्त करता है, जो भूतकाल में सम्पन्न हो चुकी हों मगर जिनकी वर्तमान के साथ सम्बद्धता हो। जिन चाक्यों के अन्त में-गया है/गई है/ चुका है/चुकी है का प्रयोग होता है, उन्हें Present perfect tense में जाना जा सकता है।]

Structure – Subject + has/have + third form of verb

(i) ‘Has’ is used only in case of third person singular number subject.

[इस काल में ‘has’ का प्रयोग केवल तब किया जाता है जब कर्त्ता third person एकवचन हो । ]

(ii) In negative form ‘not’ is used after has/ have.

[‘Negative’ में has/have के उपरान्त ‘not’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।]

(iii) In interrogative form has/have is used in the beginning of a sentence.

[ Interrogative में has / have वाक्य के प्रारम्भ में प्रयुक्त होते हैं ।]

Ex. – I have finished my work.

Negative : He has not finished his work.

Interrogative : Have they done their work ?

Present perfect is used –

1. To express an experience in the past.

[ भूतकाल में हुए किसी अनुभव को व्यक्त करने हेतु ।]

Ex. (i) I have seen the Taj Mahal.

(ii) They have eaten Chinese food.

2. To express an action which began in the past and is still continuing.

[ऐसे कार्य को व्यक्त करने हेतु जिसका प्रारम्भ भूतकाल में हुआ हो और वह वर्तमान तक जारी हो ।]

Ex. – He has lived in this house for twenty years.

‘for’ is used to indicate period of time and ‘since’ is used to indicate point of time.

[‘for’ का प्रयोग समय के अन्तराल (Period) को व्यक्त करने हेतु किया जाता है, जबकि ‘since’ किसी समय विशेष या समय के किसी बिन्दु को व्यक्त करने हेतु प्रयुक्त होता है। ]

3. To express an action completed in the past but with current relevance.

[ ऐसे कार्य की अभिव्यक्ति में जो भूतकाल में सम्पन्न हो चुका हो किन्तु वर्तमान से सम्बद्धता रखता हो ।]

Ex. He has found a job.

(d) Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Structure –  Subject+ has/have + been + (verb + ing)

This tense is used to express – 

1. An action or event that began some time ago, has continued till now gand is still going on.

[ऐसे कार्य की अभिव्यक्ति हेतु जो कुछ समय पूर्व प्रारम्भ हुआ हो, वर्तमान तक जारी हो और अभी तक चल रहा हो ।]

Ex. — (i) I have been living in this house since 1940.

(ii) He has been fishing for two hours, but hasn’t caught anything yet.

(iii) How long have you been waiting for me ?

2. An action which was going on till a very recent point of time and whose effect or result is still present.

[ ऐसे कार्य जो कुछ समय पूर्व तक जारी रहा हो और जिसका प्रभाव वर्तमान तक बना हुआ हो ।]

Ex.- I am cold because I have been swimming for an hour.

3. We can use present perfect tense in place of present perfect continuous in case the verb carries a sense of continuous action. Generally ‘for’ or “since’ is used in such sentences.

[ हम Present Perfect Continuous के स्थान पर Present Perfect का भी प्रयोग कर सकते हैं, जबकि क्रिया (verb) किसी कार्य की निरन्तरता का भाव लिए हुए हो। ऐसे वाक्यों में ‘for’ या ‘since’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।]

Ex. – (i) I have lived in this house for 20 years.

I have been living in this house for 20 years.

(ii) I have taught in this college since 1960.

I have been teaching in this college since 1960.

Tense practice exercise

PAST TENSE

( Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples )

(a) Simple Past or Past Indefinite Tense

This tense expresses a single act in the past.

[ इस काल से भूतकाल में हुई किसी घटना / कार्य का बोध होता है।]

Structure – Subject + Verb in 2nd form.

In negative sentences, first form of verb is used after ‘did not. In Interrogative ‘did’ or ‘did not’ is used in the beginning of a sentence.

[Negative में ‘did not के बाद verb का पहला रूप आता है। Interrogative में did’ या ‘did not’ का प्रयोग वाक्य के प्रारम्भ में किया जाता है।]

Ex. Madan wrote a letter. (Assertive)

Madan did not write a letter. (Negative)

Did Madan write a letter ? (Interrogative)

Didn’t Madan write a letter ? (Negative Interrogative)

Simple past is used –

1. To express habitual or regular action in the past, (compare with present simple)

[भूतकाल में स्वभावगत या नियमित क्रिया/कार्य को व्यक्त करने हेतु। Present simple से तुलना करें ।]

Ex.– Everyday he went for a walk.

2. To express an action in past which is ended now.

[ऐसे कार्य को व्यक्त करने हेतु जो भूतकाल में हुआ हो और जो अब सम्पन्न हो चुका हो ।]

Ex.- He lived in Delhi for 10 years.

3. To express events that occurred at a particular time in the past.

[ऐसी घटना जो भूतकाल के किसी निश्चित समय पर घटित हो चुकी हो, को अभिव्यक्त करने में ।]

Ex. My father left for Delhi yesterday.

(b) Past Continuous Tense

This tense expresses an action in progress in the past.

[ यह काल उस कार्य को व्यक्त करता है जो भूत में घटित हो रहा था। ऐसे वाक्यों के अन्त में रहा था / रही थी – का प्रयोग होता है ।।

Structure – Subject+ was /were + (verb + ing).

Past progressive tense is used to express –

This tense is used to express the following situations-

[इस काल का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित स्थितियों को प्रकट करने हेतु किया जाता है ।।

1. An action in progress at a point of time in the past.

[ भूतकाल के किसी समय विशेष में घटित हो रही घटना/कार्य की अभिव्यक्ति में ]

Ex. (i) At 7 A.M. this morning. I was reading a newspaper.

(ii) At 8-30 A.M. I was having my breakfast.

2. An action in progress over a period of time in the past.

(भूतकाल की किसी काल अवधि में चल रहे कार्य की अभिव्यक्ति में ।)

Ex. (i) What were you doing yesterday evening?

(ii) I was writing letters.

3. A continuing action at the same point of time in the past when another action took place.

[भूतकाल के किसी समय विशेष में जारी कार्य की अभिव्यक्ति में, जब दूसरा कार्य भी सम्पन्न हुआ हो ।]

Ex.(i) The train was crossing the bridge when the bridge broke down.

(ii) I was reading a newspaper when the peon knocked at the door.

4. When two or more actions are going on at the same time conjunction ‘while’ is used.

[ जब भूतकाल के एक ही समय में दो या अधिक कार्य एक साथ जारी हों इसमें संयोजक के रूप में ‘while’ का प्रयोग होता है ।

Ex. (i) While some boys were reading in the library, some others were playing outside.

(ii) While Rome was burning, Nero was fidding.

5. Adverbs used with the past progressive tense are –

[ ऐसे adverbs जो इस काल में प्रयुक्त होते हैं, वे हैं -]

always, continually, constantly, forever.

[ इस तरह के प्रयोग में घटना की बार-बार आवृत्ति का बोध होता है ।]

Ex. (i) She was always scolding her children.

(ii) The children were constantly asking for sweets.

( Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples )

(c) Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense describes an action completed before some special past moment.

[ पूर्ण भूतकाल से यह ज्ञात होता है कि दूसरे कार्य/घटना के आरम्भ होने के पूर्व कोई घटना / कार्य घटित हो चुका था।]

Structure – Subject+ had + verb in third form.

Ex.-  The train had left before we reached the station.

The past perfect tense is used to express

1. An action in the past which was completed before another action in the past.

[ऐसे कार्य की अभिव्यक्ति हेतु जो दूसरी घटना या कार्य के सम्पन्न होने से पहले पूर्ण हो गया हो।]

Ex. – The train had left when we reached the station.

2. When from a point of time in the past, we look backward at an event that happend earlier in the past.

[जब भूतकाल के किसी समय विशेष में उसके पूर्व घटित हो चुकी घटना / क्रिया वर्णन किया जाता हो। ]

Ex. At nine o’clock the plane had left.

3. Actions or events in the past which denote causes or reasons for later actions in the past.

[जब भूतकाल में हुई घटना अपने पूर्व घटित किसी अन्य घटना का कारण बताती हो ।]

Ex.- I didn’t know the man because I had not seen him before.

4. For an unfulfilled wish or condition in the past.

[भूतकाल की किसी अपूर्ण इच्छा या स्थिति की अभिव्यक्ति हेतु ]

Ex. (i) I wish I had accepted the job.

(ii) If only the letter had arrived in time.

5. When two simple past might give the impression that the two actions hap pened at the same time.

[जब दो सामान्य भूतकालिक वर्णन से ऐसा प्रतीत होता हो कि दोनों कार्य / घटनाएँ एक ही समय में सम्पन्न हुई हैं।]

Ex. – When he had made his speech he sat down.

(d) Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Structure – Subject+ had + been + (verb+ing).

It expresses an action or event that had begun before and was going on upto a given point of time in the past.

[ यह काल ऐसे कार्य या घटना को अभिव्यक्त करता है, जो प्रारम्भ हुआ हो और भूतकाल में किसी समय विशेष तक जारी रहा हो।

ऐसे वाक्य जिनके अन्त में आता रहा था/ जाता रहा था/करता रहा था, जैसे खण्ड प्रयुक्त होते हैं, इस काल के द्योतक हैं।]

Ex. (1) The telephone had been ringing for five minutes but there was no one to attend it.

Note – This tense bears the same relation to past perfect as the present perfect continuous bears to the present perfect.

[ इस काल का सम्बन्ध past perfect से उसी प्रकार का है,

जैसा सम्बन्ध present perfect continuous present perfect से है]

Tense practice exercise

FUTURE TENSE

( Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples )

(a) Future Simple or Future Indefinite Tense

Generally simple future tense is expressed by using will/Shall. The senten structure is –

[सामान्यतः simple future tense में will/shall का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

इसकी वाक्य रचना इस प्रकार होती है-]

Structure – Subject + Shall/will + verb (first form)

Future simple tense is used to express-

1. As a rule, ‘Shall’ is used with first person (I, we) and ‘will’ is used wit 2nd and 3rd persons (you, he/she/it, they).

[सामान्य नियम के तहत 1st person (I, we) के साथ Shall एवं 2nd व 3rd personl (you, he/she / it, they) के साथ will का प्रयोग होता है।]

Ex. –

(i) I shall return your notebooks tomorrow.

(ii) You will know your result in a day or two.

(iii) Our team will win the match.

(iv) Man will land on Mars someday.

Now a days ‘will’ is also used widely with first person to express simple future.

[आजकल ‘will’ का प्रयोग 1st person के साथ सामान्य भविष्य काल में किया जाता है। ]

2. Simple future tense can be expressed by using simple present or present progressive.

This also expresses something planned.

[सामान्य भविष्य काल को सामान्य वर्तमान काल या Present progressive के रूप में भी अभिव्यक्त किया जा सकता है।

यह एक नियोजित क्रिया को व्यक्त करता है।

Ex. — (i) Our cricket team leaves for Mumbai this evening.

(ii) The college team is playing a football match with the town team next Sunday..

(iii) The school closes on 15th May.

3. To express subject’s intention to perform a future action present progressive is used in this form –

[कर्ता द्वारा भविष्य में किये जाने वाले किसी कार्य को अभिव्यक्त करने हेतु Present progressive का प्रयोग इस रूप में किया जाता है-]

Ex.- (i) I am going to buy a bicycle.

(ii) If he doesn’t apologise, I am not going to excuse him.

4. To express an event which is likely to happen shortly about to + verb is used.

[ निकट भविष्य में सम्भावित किसी घटना की अभिव्यक्ति हेतु about to + verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है।]

Ex. The train is about to leave.

5. Be+to+ the first form of verb is also used to express a duty or necessity or planned course or action in the future.

[किसी कर्त्तव्य अथवा आवश्यकता अथवा सुनिश्चित क्रिया-कलाप की अभिव्यक्ति हेतु future tense में be + to + verb (first form) प्रयुक्त होता है।

Ex.- I am to be at the meeting at 5 o’clock.

(b) Future Continuous Tense

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों के अन्त में रहा होगा/ रही होगी जैसे अंशों का प्रयोग होता है।

Structure- shall/will+be+ (verb+ing).

This tense is used to express –

The actions that will be in progress at a given point of time in future.

यह ऐसी घटनाओं/क्रियाओं की अभिव्यक्ति करता है, जो भविष्य में किसी समय विशेष में हो रही होंगी ]

Ex.- When I reach Shimla, it will be snowing there.

2. Future continuous tense form is less definite than the present continuous form used in the same case.

[ एक जैसे सन्दर्भ में प्रयुक्त Future continuous एवं Present continuous में से Future continuous दूसरे के मुकाबले कम सुनिश्चितता की अभिव्यक्ति करता है।]

Ex. (i) I am taking I.A.S. preliminary examination next month.

(ii) I will be taking I.A.S. preliminary examination next month.

3. In the same manner future indefinite tense is more emphatic than future progressive tense.

[ इसी प्रकार future indefinite tense, future progressive tense की तुलना में अधिक सुनिश्चित है ।]

Ex.- (i) We will ask Dr. James to examine mother.

(ii) We will be asking Dr. James to examine mother.

In this example (ii) statement is a matter of routine and the (i) statement is a deliberate intention.

( Tense Chart in English , Definition, type , examples )

(c) Future Perfect Tense

Structure—shall/will + have + verb (past participle form).

It is used to express –

1. An action which is expected to be completed by a certain time in the future.

[ ऐसा कार्य, जिसके निकट भविष्य में पूर्ण होने जाने की सम्भावना हो, की अभिव्यक्ति हेतु ।]

Ex. – I shall have finished this book by the middle of next month.

2. Sometime it is used to express not the future but the speaker’s belief that something has taken place.

[कभी-कभी इसका प्रयोग भविष्य काल की सूचना देने के स्थान पर वक्ता के इस विश्वास की अभिव्यक्ति हेतु किया जाता है कि कोई कार्य विशेष सम्पन्न किया जा चुका होगा |]

Ex. You will have read about the Wright Brothers.

(d) Future Perfect Continuous Tense

[ इस प्रकार के वाक्यों के अन्त में Time phrase (for/since+ TP ) के साथ रहा होगा ,  रही होगी, रहे होंगे, रहा होऊँगा, रही होऊँगीं होते हैं ]

Structure – Subject + shall/will+have+ been+v+ing+ object + Adjunct+ for/since + Time Phrase.

This tense is used to express the actions to be still in progress at some particular point of time in the future though started some time before.

Ex.- बर्नार्ड दो घण्टे से फुटबाल खेल रहा होगा।

Barnard will have been playing football for two hours.

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