Narration meaning in hindi, definition, types, examples
Table of Contents
Narration meaning in hindi
DIRECT AND INDIRECT NARRATION
The dictionary meaning of the verb ‘narrate’ is “to give an account of something”. Thus narration means giving an account.
[‘Narrate’ क्रिया का शब्दकोशीय अर्थ है ‘किसी वस्तु का वर्णन करना। अत: narration का अर्थ है विवरण देना।]
When the actual words of the speaker are reproduced it is called DIRECT NARRATION.
[यदि किसी बातचीत को उद्धृत करने में वक्ता के शब्दों का हूबहू बोला/लिखा जाय तो यह DIRECT NARRATION होगा |]
When the conversation is repeated without using the speaker’s actual words thouth the meaning is unchanged, it is called INDIRRECT-NARRATION.
[जब बातचीत को इस तरह कथित किया जाये कि अर्थ परिवर्तित न हो किन्तु शब्द भी हूबहू वही न रहें तो कथन Indirect Narration होता है ।]
Ram said, “I am tired.” (Direct Narration)
Ram said that he was tired. (Indirect Narration)
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में Ram speaker (वक्ता है।) ‘said’ reporting verb है तथा ‘I am tired,” “reported speech”
You will note that (आप देखेंगे कि) –
(i) The reported speech in direct narration is placed within inverted commas. [Reported speech उद्धरण चिन्हों के बीच स्थित है।]
(ii) It begins with a CAPITAL letter, [ वह capital letter से प्रारम्भ होती है।
(iii) It is separated by a comma. [ वह एक comma[ , ] द्वारा अलग की गई है।
To change from Direct to indirect tense of the reporting verb remains unchanged.
[Direct से Indirect में बदलते समय reporting verb का tense अपरिवर्तित रहता है।]
CHANGING DIRECT INTO INDIRECT SPEECH
• Elementary Rules (प्रारम्भिक नियम)
(i) Inverted commas (उद्धरण चिन्ह) तथा reporting verb के बाद का comma हटाये जाते हैं।
(ii) Conjunction ‘that’ से दोनों उपवाक्यों (clauses) को जोड़ते हैं।
(ii) यदि Reporting verb के बाद object (कर्म) noun / pronoun] हो, तो say to के बदले tell क्रिया का उपयोग होता है।
Ex.-(1) Ram said to Seeta – Ram told Seeta.
(ii) He said to me – He told me.
(iii) Sunil says to Ramesh – Sunil tells Ramesh.
⚫ Change of Tenses in Indirect Speech
(i) If the Reporting Verb is in the present or the future tense, there is no change in the tense of the Reported Speech.
[यदि Reporting Verb, वर्तमान अथवा भविष्य काल में हो तो Reported Speech के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है। ]
Ex.-Direct – Sunil says, “I am busy.”
Indirect -Sunil says that he is busy.
Direct- Sunil will say, “I am busy.”
Indirect- Sunil will say that he is busy.
(ii) If the Reporting Verb is in the past tense and Reported Speech is in the present or the future tense, then the verb of Reported Speech is changed into corresponding past tense form.
[अगर Reporting Verb, past tense में हो और Reported Speech, present future tense में हो, तब Reported Speech के Verb में सम्बन्धित past tense का रूप लिया जाता है ।]
(a) Present simple into Past simple.
He said, “Sita sings very well.”
He said that Sita sang very well.
(b) Present continuous into Past continuous.
He said, “Sita is singing very well.”
He said that Sita was singing very well.
(c) Present perfect in to Past perfect.
He said, “Sita has sung very well.”
He said that Sita had sung very well.
(d) Present perfect continuous into Past perfect continuous.
He siad, “Sita has been singings very well.
He said that Sita had been singing very well.
The tense of the Reported Speech is not changed.
[Reported speech के Tense में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता ।]
(a) If it tells some Universal Truth.
[अगर यह कोई सार्वभौमिक सत्य बता रहा हो।]
He said, “The earth moves round the sun,”
He said that the earth moves round the sun.
(b) If it tells some Habitual fact.
यदि यह कोई प्रथागत सत्य बता रहा हो।।
He said, “The Hindus burn their dead.”
He said that the Hindus burn their dead.
(c) If it tells some Proverb. (यदि यह कोई लोकोक्ति, कहावत बता रहा हो ।
He said, “Barking dogs seldom bite,”
He said that barking dogs seldom bite.
(iii) If the Reported Speech is in the future tense, it changes as follows:
यदि Reported Speech, future tense में हो तो उसका परिवर्तन निम्नलिखित रूप से होता है –
He said. “Ram will see me again.”
He said that Ram would see him again.
He said, “I shall go to Agra.”
He said that he would go to Agra.
अर्थात् will/shall के स्थान पर would का प्रयोग होता है।
यदि Reporting Verb व Reported Speech दोनों past tense में हों, तो Reported Speech की क्रिया नीचे बताये गए तरीके से होती है
(a) Simple past into Past perfect.
(i)He said, “Ram gave me my pen,”
He said that Ram had given him his pen.
(ii) He said, “The horse died at night.”
He said that the horse had died at night.
(b) Past continuous into Past perfect continuous.
He said, “The man was coming.”
He said that the man had been coming.
(c) Past perfect and Past perfect continuous are not changed.
Exceptional Cases (अपवादात्मक स्थितियाँ ) :
(a) In case of Historic Truth, simple past remains unchanged.
ऐतिहासिक सत्यता बताने वाले simple past tense में परिवर्तन नहीं होता।
He said, “Gandhi died in 1948.”
He said that Gandhi died in 1948.
(b) If only a single action is reported in the direct, the simple past tense remains unchanged.
[यदि कोई एक घटना report की जाती है, तब Reported Speech का Simple past tense अपरिवर्तित रहता है ।]
He said, “I lived in Delhi for ten years.”
He said that he lived in Delhi for ten years.
(c) If two connected actions of past taking place at the same time is reported, there is no change in the tense of the Reported Speech.
यदि भूतकाल । की दो सम्बन्धित घटनाओं को report किया जा रहा है, तब Reported Spa past tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता]
He said, “When the game began, it started raining.”
He said that when the game began it started raining.
(ii) He said, “When I went to Kolkata, I met him in the train.”
He said that when he went to Kolkata, he met him in the train.
We know that change of tense means change in the verb form.So these changes can be affected by changing the auxiliary verbs and one need not remember the names of the tenses. The following chart will help you in this.
[ हम जानते हैं कि tense में परिवर्तन का अर्थ क्रिया रूप में परिवर्तन है। अत: इन परिवर्तन को हम बिना tense का नाम याद रखे, क्रिया रूप/सहायक क्रिया के परिवर्तन द्वारा प्रभावी बना सकते निम्नांकित चार्ट से इसमें सहायता मिलेगी ।]
|Main verb||1st form या 1st form + s/es||→||2nd form.|
|Main Verb||2nd form||→||had + 3rd form.|
|Auxiliary||will/shall||→||would/should (request में)|
• Change in Other Words
Words expressing Nearness in Direct Speech are changed into words expressing Distance in Indirect Speech, if the Reporting Verb is in the past.
[यदि Reporting Verb past में है तो Direct Speech में समीपता दर्शाने वाले शब्दों को Indirect Speech में दूरी बताने वाले शब्दों में परिवर्तन किया जाता है ।]
|1. Now||Then||7. This||That|
|2. Today||That day||8. These||Those|
|3. Tomorrow||The next day||9. Here||There|
|4. Yesterday||The day before||10. Ago||before|
|5. Last night||The night before||11. Hence||Thence|
|6. Come||Go||12. Thus||So|
[Note—फिर भी आवश्यक नहीं है कि सभी जगह समीपवर्ती शब्द दूरवर्ती शब्दों में बदल जाते हैं। अत: विवेकपूर्वक ही इनका प्रयोग करना चाहिए ।
• Change of Personal Pronoun
The first person pronouns I and We are changed according to the person of the speaker.
[प्रथम पुरुष सर्वनाम I तथा We को वक्ता के person के अनुसार परिवर्तित किया जाता है
Ex. (i) Isaid, “I do not go there.”
I said that I did not go there.
(ii) He said, “I am ill.”
He said that he was ill.
(iii) You said, “I am reading my book.”
You said that you were reading your book.
(iv) They said, “We want to go to Delhi ourselves.”
They said that they wanted to go to Delhi themselves.
The second person pronoun ‘You’ is changed according to the person of the listener.
[Second person सर्वनाम You को श्रोता के person के अनुसार परिवर्तित किया जाता है ।]
Ex. -(i) He said to me, “You are happy.
He told me that I was happy.
(ii) He said to you, “You are a fool.
He told you that you were a fool.
(iii) Father said to him, “You are not going there.”
Father told him that he was not going there.
(iv) Ram said to her, “You are a good girl.”
Ram told her that she was a good girl.
(v) He said to them, “You are sad.”
He told them that they were sad.
Note – If there is no object after Reporting verb. then the second person pronoun of Reported Speech is changed into first person.
[Reporting Verb के बाद अगर कोई object अथवा कर्म न हो, तो Reported Speech का second person सर्वनाम first person सर्वनाम में बदल जाता है।]
Ex. (1) He Said, “You are a good boy.”
He said that I was a good boy.
(ii) She said, “You are a good girl.”
She said that I was a good girl.
(iii) I said, “You are a good girl.”
I said that you were a good girl.
[Note—जब Reporting Verb के बाद कोई object न हो, तो ‘me’ को understood समझना चाहिए। तद्नुसार Reported Speech का second person first person में परिवर्तित होगा |]
The third person he/she/it pronoun is unchanged in Reported Speech.
[ Reported Speech में Third Person सर्वनाम he/she/it का परिवर्तन नहीं होता।]
Ex. (i) I said, “Mohan is a clerk.”
I said that Mohan was a clerk.
(ii) Mohan said, “She is a good girl.”
Mohan said that she was a good girl.
(iii) They said, “He is a good player.”
They said that he was a good player.
Noun is always accepted as third person.
[Noun को सदा third person माना जाता है।
If both the subject and object of Reporting Verb are third person, in Indirect Speech their names should be written within brackets.
यदि Reporting Verb का subject व object दोनों third person हो तब Indirect Speech में bracket के अन्दर उनका नाम लिख लेना चाहिए।
Ex.- (1) Gita said to Sita, “I shall always help you.”
Gita told Sita that she (Gita) would always help her.
(ii) Mohan said to Sohan,” I shall give you a pen.”
Mohan told sohan that he (Mohan) would give him (Sohan) a pen.
If ‘We’ pronoun is used for both speaker and listener then ‘We’ is not changed. [यदि वक्ता और श्रोता दोनों के लिए we सर्वनाम का प्रयोग हुआ हो, तब यह परिवर्तन नहीं होगा ||
Ex- Mohan says to me, “We should not go to college.”
Mohan tells me that we should not go to college.
Pronouns in Different Cases:
|Persons||Nominative Case||Objective Case||Possessive Case|
|Second Person||You||you||your, yours|
Pronouns के विभिन्न रूप अपने स्तंभ (Column) में ही बदलते हैं।
(1) ‘You‘ placed before verb is always a Nominative case: and is changed according to the listener.
[क्रिया से पूर्व प्रयुक्त ‘You‘ Nominative case अर्थात् कर्ता होता है तथा इसका परिवर्तन श्रोता के अनुसार होता है | ]
Ex- You are a good boy. (Nominative Case)
(ii) ‘You’ used after verb is said to be in Objective case.
[क्रिया के बाद प्रयुक्त ‘You‘ Objective case अर्थात् कर्म होता है। ]
Ex- I shall give you a pen. (Objective case)
(iii) If noun is placed after ‘her’ it is said to be in Possessive case.
[यदि her के बाद कोई Noun शब्द हो, वह अधिकार सूचक है।]
Ex. -;She reads her book. (Possessive case)
(iv) If there is no noun word after ‘her’ it is said to be in Objective case
[यदि her के बाद कोई Noun word नहीं हो, यह objective case अथवा कर्म होता है ।
Ex- I know her. (Objective case)
Ex- He said to him, “I read my book”
He told him that he read his book.
Here ‘I’ is Nominative case which is changed to ‘he’ and ‘my’ is Possessive case changed to his’ [यहाँ पर कर्ता ‘I’ का ‘he’ में और “my” का अधिकार सूचक ‘his’ में परिवर्तन किया गया है।
1. ASSERTIVE SENTENCES (साधारण वाक्य)
To report Assertive sentences in Indirect Speech remember the following rules:
[Assertive sentences को Indirect speech में बदलते समय नीचे दिये गये नियमों को याद रखें -]
(1) Omit the inverted commas and comma and join Reporting Speech with Reported Speech with conjunction “That”.
[Inverted commas (” “) और comma (, ) को विलोपित कर Reporting Speech को Reported Speech के साथ ‘That’ conjunction से जोड़ो |]
Ex. Sita said, “I am reading my book.”
Sita said, that she was reading her book.
(2) If there is any object after the Reporting Verb say/says or said or will say change them to tell/tells or told or will tell, and ‘to’ is dropped.
[say/says/said/will say Reporting Verb के बाद अगर कोई object हो तो उन्हें tell/ tells/told/will tell में बदलों और to को छोड़ दिया जाता है।]
Ex. (i) He says to me, “I am your friend.”
He tells me that he is my friend.
(ii) I said to him, “You should be regular in studies.”
I told him that he should be regular in studies.
(iii) He will say to her, “You are a good girl.”
He will tell her she is a good girl.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Narration:
1. The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
2. The teacher said, “Union is strength.”
3. He said to me “I know you and your father.”
4. Mr. Prasad said to the students, “I shall teach you English tomorrow.”
5.The girl said to me, “Yes, I like to read this book.”
6. He said to me, “You are my brother.”
7. He said “God is everywhere.”
8. Ram said, “I posted the letters yesterday.”
9. Asha said to me, “You are my friend. ”
10. She said to me, “I want your note-book for a day.”
1. The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
2. The teacher said that union is strength.
3. He told me that he knew me and my father.
4. Mr. Prasad told the students that he would teach them English the next day
5. The girl affirmed (me) that she liked to read that book.
6. He told me that you were his brother.
7. He said that God is everywhere.
8. Ram said that he had posted the letters yesterday.
9. Asha told me that I was her friend.
10. She told me that she wanted my note-book for a day.
2. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES (प्रश्नसूचक वाक्य )
Reporting Verb is changed into ‘asked’, ‘enquired’, ‘demanded’ etc in Indirect Narration.
[Reporting Verba ( प्रश्नवाचक sentence में ) Indirect Narration में asked. enquired, demanded आदि में बदला जाता है।
Ex. (i) He said to him, “What are you doing?”
He asked him what he was doing?
(ii) I said to him, “Are you going to school?”
I asked him if he was going to school?
In “Yes or No. questions” [Questions starting with helping verbs like do/does/did/has/have etc.] ‘if’ or “whether” is used before Reported Speech as a connector and the sentence is written as an assertive sentence.
(हाँ या ना में उत्तर मिलने वाले प्रश्नों में (अगर प्रश्न सहायक क्रिया do/does/did/ have/ has आदि से शुरू हो रहा हो), Reported Speech से पहले if अथवा whether का प्रयोग संयोजक के रूप में किया जाता है तथा वाक्य को कथन वाक्य की तरह लिखते हैं ।]
Ex.-1. Ram said to Hari, “Do you play cricket?”
Ram asked Hari if he played cricket.
2. He said to them, “Will you listen to such a man?”
He asked them whether they would listen to such a man.
In Question Word Questions, (Questions starting with ‘what”, “when where’ etc.), the Question word is used as conjunction and the sentence is white as an assertive sentence.
(Question Word से शुरू हो रहे प्रश्नों को बदलते समय Question Word को ही conjunction के रूप में प्रयोग किया जाता है और वाक्य को Assertive sentence में लिखा जाता है)
Ex. 1. He said to me, “What are you doing?”
He asked me what I was doing.
2. “Where do you live”, asked the stranger.
The stranger enquired where I lived.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:
1. The policeman said to me “Where are you going?”
2. The doctor said to the patient “Did you eat anything yesterday?”
3. “Do you know me ?” said the old man to me.
4. He said to her, “How is your father?”
5. He said to me, “Have you watered the plants?”
6. He said to me, “Has he invited you?”
7. Mohan said to the teacher, “May I go out?”
8. Hari said to Mohan, “Have you seen a lion ?”
9. She said to me, “When will you come ?”
10. I said to him, “Will you go to Kolkata ?”
1. The policeman inquired me where I was going.
2. The doctor inquired the patient if he had eaten anything the previous day.
3. The old man asked me if I knew him.
4. He inquired her how her father was.
He inquired her about her father’s health.
5. He asked me if I had watered the plants.
6. He inquired me if he had invited me.
7. Mohan requested his teacher if he might go out.
8. Hari asked Mohan if he had seen a lion.
9. She asked me when I would go.
10. I inquired him if he would go to Kolkata.
3. IMPERATIVE SENTENCSE (विधेयार्थक वाक्य )
Rules for Changing Direct into Indirect
The Reporting Verbs are changed into tell, requested, ordered, forbid, urge, warn, implore, command, beg, advise etc. according to the Reported Speech.
[Reporting Verb (tell, requested, order, implore, command, beg, advise आदि में बदल दिया जाता है ।]
Ex. (i) The teacher said to Mohan, “Work hard.”
The teacher advised Mohan to work hard.
(ii) He said to him, “Please help my friend.”
He requested him to help his friend.
(iii) The Captain said to the soldiers, “March ahead.”
The Captain commanded the soldiers to march ahead.
Instead of conjunction, preposition ‘to’ is used before the Indirect statement.
[Indirect statement से पूर्व Conjunction के स्थान पर Preposition ‘to’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।]
Ex. He said to her, “Sit down.”
He told her to sit down.
If there is a word ‘Don’t’ in Reported Speech, it becomes ‘not to in Indirect Speech. Such sentence is a negative imperative.
[Reported Speech में लिखी गयी ‘Don’t Indirect Speech में ‘not to’ के रूप में लिखा जाता है। ऐसा वाक्य negative imperative होगा]
Ex. (i) He told me, “Don’t listen to this rubbish.”
He advised me not to listen to that rubbish.
(ii) The teacher said to the boys, “Don’t write on text books.”
The teacher ordered the boys not to write on text books.
The words ‘Please’, ‘Sir’ etc. are omitted and are changed into ‘kindly”, respectfully’ etc. and are used with the Reporting Verb.
[‘Please’, ‘Sir’, आदि शब्दों को हटा दिया जाता है और उनके स्थान पर kindly, respectfully आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Ex. (i) The student said to the teacher, “Sir, allow me to go out of the class.”
The student requested the teacher respectfully to allow him to go out of the class.
(ii) He said, “Please give me a glass of water.”
He requested him to give him a glass of water.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Narration:
1. “Sit down, boys”, said the teacher.
2. “Quick march”, said the commander.
3. The principal said to the peon, “Get out.”
4. The boys said to the teacher, “Pardon me.”
5. He said to me, “Please do not disturb me.”
6. She said to the boy, “Show me your teeth.”
7. “Rum away, children”, said their mother.
8. “Please, don’t touch the exhibits”. The guide said to the students.
9. The teacher said to the boys, “Take back your books”.
10. The doctor said to the patient, “Do not move from your bed.”
1. The teacher ordered the boys to sit down.
2. The commander ordered quick march.
3. The principal ordered the peon to get out.
4. the boy begged pardon from the teacher.
The boy begged the teacher to pardon him.
5. He requested me politely not to disturb him.
6. She ordered the boy to show her his teeth.
7. Their mother advised the children to run away.
8. The guide requested the students politely not to touch the exhibits.
9. The teacher ordered the boys to take back their books.
10. The doctor advised the patient not to move from his/her bed.
4. SENTENCES STARTING WITH LET (Let से प्रारम्भ होने वाले वाक्य)
If a Reported Speech starts with ‘Let us’, then ‘said’ is changed into ‘proposed’ or ‘suggested’ and ‘Let us’ to ‘They should’. Let us can be a proposal or suggestion.
Let us से शुरू हो रहे वाक्यों को बदलते समय ‘said’ को proposed अथवा suggested एवं Let us को ‘They should’ में बदल दिया जाता है, क्योंकि Let us प्रस्ताव, सलाह व्यक्त करता है।
Ex. – He said to his friends, “Let us start our game.”
He proposed to his friends that they should start their game.
If ‘let’ means to request, ‘said’ is changed into ‘requested’ and ‘to’ placed before let.
( यदि let का अर्थ अनुरोध हो, तब ‘said’ Reporting Verb में, ‘requested’ में बदल दिया जाता है और ‘to’ को let के पूर्व लगाया जाता है ।]
Ex. – I said to my friends, “Let me work.”
I requested my friends to let me work.
If ‘let’ means order, ‘said’ is changed into ‘ordered’.
अगर ‘let’ का अर्थ आदेश होता है, ‘said’ को ‘ordered’ में बदल दिया जाता है।
Ex. – He said to his son, “Let the guest sleep.”
He ordered his son to let the guest sleep.
If ‘shouted’ is used in Reporting Verb it is unchanged.
[यदि Reporting Verb में shouted का प्रयोग किया गया है, Indirect Speech में भीक्षअपरिवर्तित रहता है।
Ex. He shouted, “Let me go.”
He shouted to let him go.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:
1. He said, “Let me go.”
2. I said to them, “Let us go for a walk.”
3. The principal said to the boys, “Let us go for picnic.”
4. She said to me, “Let us take tea.”
5. I said to Tillu, “Let us take some rest.”
1. He requested to let him go.
2. I proposed to them that all should go for a walk.
3. The principal proposed to the students for picnic.
4. She proposed to me to take tea with her.
5. 1 proposed to Tilla that we should take some rest.
5. EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES (आश्चर्यबोधक वाक्य)
The Reporting Verb is changed into exclaimed, praised, mourned shouted, regretted etc. according to the statement.
[Reporting Verb को exclaimed, praised, mourned, shouted, regretted आदि रूप में statement के अनुरूप बदला जाता है।
Conjunction ‘that’ is used before Reported Speech.
[Reported Speech के पूर्व Conjunction ‘that’ का प्रयोग होता है।]
According to the statement words like ‘Oh’, ‘Hurrah’, ‘Alas” etc. are omitted and ‘with joy’, ‘with surprise’, ‘with sorrow’ etc. are placed after ‘exclaimed’.
[Statement के अनुरूप ‘Oh’, ‘Hurrah’, ‘Alas’ आदि शब्दों को हटा दिया जाता है और उनके स्थान पर ‘with joy’, with sorrow, ‘with surprise’ आदि शब्दों का exclaimed के बाद प्रयोग किया जाता है।]
Ex. (1) He said, “Alas! I am undone.”
He exclaimed with sorrow that he was undone.
(ii) Meera said, “Oh! I am very ill.”
Meera mourned that she was very ill.
(iii) She said, “Bravo! you have played well.”
She applauded him that he had played well.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Narration:
1. He said, “What a grand building it is!”
2. Mohan said, “Ah! I am undone !”
3. The Captain said, “Hurrah! We have won the match.”
4. The teacher said, “Bravo! You have done well.”
5. He said, “Alas! Our foes are too strong.”
1. He exclaimed that it was a grand building.
2. Mohan mourned that he was undone.
3. The Captain exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.
4. The teacher applauded that they he/she had done well.
5. He exclaimed with worry that their foes were too strong.
6. OPTATIVE SENTENCES (इच्छासूचक वाक्य)
Reporting Verb is changed into ‘wished’, ‘desired’, ‘prayed’ etc, as per statement.
[Reporting Verb को अर्थ के अनुसार wished, desired, prayed आदि में बदल देते हैं ।
The Reporting Verb ‘wished’, ‘desired’ etc. should be followed by conjunction ‘that’,
[Reporting Verb ‘wished’, ‘desired’ आदि के बाद conjunction ‘that’ प्रयुक्त होता
Ex. (i) He said to me, “May you live long.”
He wished that I might live long.
(ii) Father said, “May you succeed, my son.”
Father prayed that his son might succeed.
(iii) They said to me, “A happy birthday to you.”
They wished me a happy birthday.
Note – कभी-कभी optative sentence बिना verb के रहता है और उसमें verb की आवश्यकता भी नहीं होती। ऐसी हालत में उसमें that नहीं लगाया जाता है।
Change the following sentences in to Indirect Narration:
1. He said, “May God save the king!”
2. The old woman said to us, “May you die soon!”
3. She said to me, “May God bless you with a son!”
4. The teacher said to me, “May you succeed!”
5. The people said, “May you live long !”
1. He wished that God might save the king.
2. The old woman cursed us that we might die soon.
3. She wished that God might bless me with a son,
4. The teacher wished me success.
5. The people wished me a long life.
Note—आजकल Reporting Verb ‘said to’ के स्थान पर अधिकांशत: तीन ही verbs से काम चल जाता है :
(i) told – Assertive, Imperative (order), exclamatory sentences में,
(ii) asked – Interrogative, Imperative (request) में,
(iii) Wished-optative sentences में।