Table of Contents
Harmful changes in marine ecosystems caused by the introduction of foreign substances into the ocean or It is called marine pollution.
Sources of Marine Pollution and its causes :-
1. Toxic wastes –
Many types of toxic wastes are brought to the sea shores by rivers and people which pollute the sea shores a lot.
2. Industrialization –
The water in the coastal areas is becoming poisonous due to the release of toxic chemicals from industrialization.
Today this toxic water has badly affected the marine life and has contaminated the fishes.
When such fish are used as food items.
So many diseases and physical and mental disorders arise due to it.
3. Garbage discharge from metropolitan and local establishments –
Fishing industry, tourism, transportation and waste dumping industries spread pollution in their own ways.
All the famous cities of the world are located on the sea coast.
Whose sewage flows into the oceans and spreads pollution.
4. Transportation of ships and tankers-
Transportation has polluted the sea in huge quantities.
The ocean environment has been greatly damaged due to oil spilled from ships
and tankers being wrecked, exploded and sunk in wars and beaches are also being polluted.
5. Testing of nuclear weapons in the sea-
Testing of nuclear weapons in the sea spreads radioactive material in the water and millions of marine animals die.
6. Other wastes-
Apart from the above mentioned wastes, in modern times,
the work of polluting the ocean shores is done by humans only.
Every person goes to the sea shore to enjoy nature,
but he leaves behind food waste, cans and other garbage with him,
which causes great harm to the environment of the sea shores.
For example Chowpatty of Mumbai.
Effects Of Marine Pollution
At present, due to marine pollution, many marine creatures (plants and animals)
are dying and valuable marine resources are being damaged.
Following are some important effects of marine pollution-
1. The pollutants coming along the rivers are causing the death of marine fish and other organisms.
2. Sea water is getting polluted due to the effluents of industrial institutions which are polluting the fishes and aquatic creatures,
by consuming which humans are getting affected by many diseases.
3. Leakage of petroleum oil in the sea kills many creatures including whales in large numbers;
Millions of water birds die.
4. Chemicals present in the depths of the sea are being used in the manufacture of important medicines.
Their quality is being affected by pollution.
5. Due to marine pollution, the cultivation of precious coral rocks is continuously decreasing.
Which has caused deep economic loss to the nation.
6. Due to nuclear tests, the water and organisms of many oceans have been affected by radioactivity,
which has become the cause of various types of cancer.
Marine pollution control measures
In view of the harmful effects of marine pollution,
its control is necessary.
Therefore, to stop this pollution we have to take the following important steps-
1. Rivers should be kept free from pesticides, fertilizers and industrial effluents.
2. Effluents from industries, factories and cities established on the sea shore should be discharged into the sea only after treatment.
3. Effective ways should be found to prevent serious oil spills from cargo ships and oil wells in the seas.
4. Nuclear tests should be banned.
5. Nuclear waste should be properly treated before disposing of it in the sea.