Environment Protection Act
Table of Contents
Environment Protection Act –
In the present era, environmental protection is a complex problem and it is a challenge for the entire world.
Today’s increasing pollution has become a curse for the entire mankind.
Apart from humans, forests and wildlife are suffering from pollution.
For this reason, special emphasis is being given to environmental protection in the Constitution and laws and many laws have also been made from time to time to deal with this problem.
Some major acts are as follows-
1. Environment (Protection) Act, 1986-
The objective of passing the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 was to protect the environment from various harmful effects like chemicals, increasing pollution due to depletion of biological substances, natural disasters etc.
Provisions related to punishment –
Anyone who violates the rules made under this Act will be punished with imprisonment of 5 years or fine up to one lakh rupees or both.
2. Air Pollution (Prevention and Control) Act 1981:-
Air is essential for the existence of life.
Life cannot be imagined without air.
Today clean air is just a figment of the past.
The Air Pollution (Prevention and Control) Act 1981 was enacted by the Parliament on 16 May 1981 throughout India.
There are a total of 54 sections of this Act which are divided into 7 chapters.
This Act was passed mainly to control the smoke emitted from motor vehicles and industrial plants.
Water Pollution (Prevention and Control) Act 1974-
At present, water pollution and air pollution are standing before humanity as a big challenge.
The problem of pollution of rivers, ponds and other water sources has increased our concern to a great extent.
The Water Pollution (Prevention and Control) Act has a total of 8 chapters and 64 sections.
their main objective
Water pollution has to be controlled.
The main objectives of this Act are as follows-
(1) To prevent water pollution
(2) To keep water healthy
(3) To control water pollution
This Act prescribes punishment for those who pollute water and establishes an administrative mechanism for the control
and prevention of water pollution at the central and state level, which is called Water Pollution Control Board.
The Water Pollution Act prohibits the dumping of poisonous, noxious or polluting substances into rivers and
wells and prohibits every act which interferes with the proper flow of water in rivers.
The Act also imposes restrictions that discharge of sewage, water or industrial effluent into rivers or wells will require prior permission.
The Board has the right to punish the polluter for creating such situations.
Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972-
Due to the destruction of wildlife habitat, wild animals have to face the most serious crisis.
Agricultural industry, urbanization and industrialization are the main reasons for this destruction.
The Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 regulates wildlife protection and the protection of endangered species.
Forest (Conservation) Act 1980-
Many rules and laws related to the conservation of forests are in effect,
but the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 has proved to be a milestone for the conservation of forests.
The basic objective of this Act is to discourage the use of forest areas for non-forestry purposes.
In this Act, if any non-forestry work is done for the development of the nation like building a road, constructing a dam, laying power line, getting mining work done etc.,
then in such a situation, under certain conditions, the forest area will be protected.
There is also a provision for taking permission from the government for transfer.
Problems in implementing environmental laws:-
The following problems arise in proper implementation of the laws made for environmental protection: –
1. Since a large part of the population is illiterate,
they do not know about the laws made for environmental protection.
2. State borders, mutual discrimination and different laws become obstacles in catching timber and wildlife smugglers.
3.A large part of the population gets employment through businesses like wood cutting,
forest produce collection, mining etc. Therefore it is difficult to close them.
4.Many religious and social customs like dumping dead bodies in rivers, immersion of idols in water bodies, animal sacrifice, installation of loudspeakers at religious places etc.
create obstacles in the implementation of environmental laws.
India being a religious country and due to the fear of provoking public sentiments, strictness cannot be exercised.
In comparison to other developing countries of the world,
development in industrial, scientific and other fields took place at such a rapid pace in India
that the people planning and implementing the development did not pay any attention to the ecological balance.
Due to this, environmental pollution was born. Public awareness is needed to solve this problem.
If we have given rise to the problem of environmental pollution,
then the responsibility of protecting the environment should also be on our shoulders.
Enthusiasm for programs like ‘Social Forestry’ will have to be generated in the mind of every countryman.
Love for nature and its elements like animals and plants has to be taught right from childhood.
Programs like Van Mahotsav will have to be encouraged more and more.
Our problems are not solved by planting trees but it is equally important to protect them.
Every person will have to act as a sentinel of the trees.
The solution to this problem will be relatively easier through public awareness.