Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable

ENERGY RESOURCES RENEWABLE AND NONRENEWABLE

Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable –

In today’s developed countries power has been developed in various forms.

Energy is not only used for lighting, domestic purposes, transportation, industry and means of communication, but it has also brought about revolutionary changes in agriculture.

After the Industrial Revolution, energy has developed at a rapid pace in all areas of human life.

Human beings require energy directly or indirectly to carry out all their activities smoothly.

ENERGY RESOURCES 

“The substances from which humans obtain energy are called energy resources.”

In ancient times, humans depended on human power, animal power and wood for energy.

But today it obtains energy by using coal, petroleum, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear minerals, sun rays, wind, geological heat, tidal waves, sugarcane bagasse, cow dung gas, garbage etc.

Which is called industrial power.

Types Of Energy Resources

Energy resources can be classified into two parts:-

(1) Traditional resources :-

Traditional resources are those resources whose reserves are limited and can be exhausted at any time: – Coal, natural gas, petroleum products, nuclear minerals etc.

Among the traditional energy sources, wood, coal, mineral oil etc. have been in use since ancient times.

Therefore, there is a possibility of their extinction in the future.

Therefore, they should be used carefully and economically.

(2) Non-traditional resources:-

Due to the limitation of conventional energy resources, non-conventional energy resources were discovered and more and more emphasis was given on their use.

Among the non-conventional energy resources, solar energy, wind energy, bio gas, hydro power are the main resources.

Along with this, use of many technologies like ocean energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen battery has also started.

COAL RESOURCES

Coal is the main source of energy which is a transformed form of vegetation

buried in the layers of the earth.

Coal is essential for modern industries – iron, steel and chemical industries.more coal

The longer it remains buried underground, the better and more carbon-rich it becomes.

In India, more than 60 percent of the commercial power requirements are met by coal and lignite.

Coal, along with being the main source of energy, is also a raw material from which scientists have manufactured about two lakh diverse items till date.

Types of coal:-

In terms of chemical composition, following types of coal are found in India:-

(1) Lignite coal:-

Carbon in it

Its content is 45 to 55 percent, water content is 20 to 25 percent and volatile matter is 35 to 40 percent.

This type of coal is found in Bikaner in Rajasthan, Arcot in Tamil Nadu, Lakhimpur in Assam, Korba in Kashmir Valley.

(2) Bituminous coal:-

This coal

It is found in many rocks of Godwana period.

Its color is black and it produces less smoke while burning.

In this, the amount of carbon is 60 to 80 percent, the amount of water is 5 percent and the amount of volatile matter is 20 to 35 percent.

Generally only medium grade bituminous coal is available in India.

(3) Anthesite coal:-

It is of the best grade.

While burning, its flame is blue, bright and smokeless.

amount of carbon in it

80 to 95 percent, water content ranges from 2 to 5 percent and volatile matter ranges from 10 to 25 percent.

This type of coal is obtained from the mines of Kashmir and Raniganj.

(4) Peat coal:-

This coal is found in the Shivarai hills of Salem district, on the Nilgiri Mountains in Tamil Nadu, in the valleys of Nepal and Kashmir and in the lakes of Sylhet and Kachhar in the Brahmaputra valley.

This is low grade coal, in which the carbon content is less than 40 percent.

Distribution:-

98 percent of India’s coal is of Godwana age, 75 percent of its coal reserves are located in the Damodar river valley area.

Here Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih, Bokaro and Karanpura are the main coal fields.

Coal reserves are also found in the valleys of Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha rivers.

There are huge coal reserves in Raigarh, Sonhat, Chirmiri, Vishrampur and Lakhanpur in Chhattisgarh, Talchir and Sambalpur in Orissa, Chandrapur in Maharashtra and Singrauni in Andhra Pradesh.

Jharkhand state ranks first in coal production. Best quality bituminous coal is obtained here.

Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh rank second in coal production areas.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

Coal Production:-

India ranks fifth in the world in coal production.

According to the Geological Survey of India, till 1986, 1,59,29,916

The reserves of crore tonnes of coal are present in the form of a layer of 1200 meters length and more than 0.5 meters thick.

Use Of Coal:

The highest demand for Indian coal is in the country’s industries and power plants.

Apart from this, coal is used in the production of lipsticks and perfumed oils, cosmetic items – clothes with fine threads like nylon, Dacron, plastics, toothbrushes, buttons, waterproof paper,Items like naphthalene, ammonia, bitumen, coke, artificial rubber, artificial petroleum, color paint, saccharin, perfume, medicines, polish colors, hair dye, indigo, varnish, printing press ink, photo color printing ink etc.

are made. From coal only; Petrol is obtained by the process of hydrogenation.

Coal is also used in melting metals, generating thermal power and generating steam power.

Business:-

Coal in India is mainly exported to neighboring countries – Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Aden, Mauritius, East Africa and Middle East countries.

It is imported to meet the domestic demand for cooking coal.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

Mineral Oil and Natural Gas

Mineral oil is generally found among deposits of sedimentary rocks with special geological structure.

Many times natural gas is also found along with mineral oil.

Mineral oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds.

Mineral oil is produced as a result of the actions of heat, pressure, chemicals, bacteria and radio-activity etc.

when living organisms remain buried in large quantities of mud, soil, sand etc.

in river valleys or oceans over a period of millions of years.

Generally gases are found at the top, oil at the bottom and water at the bottom.

Production And Distribution:-

The mineral oil field in India is probably more than 17 lakh square kilometers, which is about two-fourth of the country’s area.

This includes the plains of the country, the Thar Desert, the continental shelf, the region of Assam and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands.

At the time of independence, mineral oil was extracted only in Assam, and the refinery located in Digboi of this state

It used to be refined in the year 1850, although the oil field here is small in size, but this is the only oil field that continues to operate for 100 years.

Oil and natural gas were discovered in the plains of Gujarat and the coastal areas of the Gulf of Khambhat after independence.

The discovery of mineral oil in the sea, 115 kilometers away from the Mumbai coast, was completely unexpected.

At present this is the largest oil field in India.

Which is known as ‘Mumbai High’. Whose annual production is up to 35 percent of the country.

For oil extraction, a water platform named ‘Sagar Samrat‘ has been constructed in Mumbai High, with the help of which oil and gas is obtained from a depth of about 1416 meters.

Oil and gas are being produced here on a commercial scale since 1976.

Presently it is the largest oil producing region of the country.

The latest reserves of mineral oil have been discovered only in the coastal areas of the sea.

These areas are spread in the deep sea near the delta coasts of Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri and Mahanadi.

New reserves of oil have also been discovered in Assam.

Natural gas reserves are usually found along with oil fields.

But apart from oil fields, only natural gas reserves have been discovered in Tripura and Rajasthan.

Apart from these, natural gas reserves have also been found in the deep sea off the coasts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

Production, Demand And Consumption Of Mineral Oil:-

Although mineral oil production in India has been continuously increasing, it has still been much less than the country’s requirement.

In 1961, the production of mineral oil was only 45 thousand tons.

Due to the development of new areas of Assam and new areas of Gujarat, it increased to 68.2 lakh tonnes in 1970-71.

Due to the new discovery of Mumbai High, its production increased to 105 lakh tonnes in 1980-81.

It was expected that India would become self-reliant in mineral oil production in 5-10 years,

but due to many adverse reasons the production kept falling continuously which in 2002-03

It has reduced to 330 lakh tonnes. now petroleum

In view of the ever-increasing demand for materials, twelve new refineries in the private and joint sectors have been approved in the coming ten years.

Of these 18 refineries, 16 are in the public sector and one each in the joint sector and private sector.

Oil Refineries:-

Mineral oil is extracted from the ground in impure form.

Which is taken from the production areas to the refineries through long pipes and the impurities are removed through distillation.

Oil is extracted by separating petrol, inflammable gas, bitumen, paraffin etc. mixed in oil.

At present there are 18 oil refineries in the country.

In which Barauni, Nunamati, Bogai village, Koyli and Digboi oil refineries clean the oil produced in the country.

Mumbai High oil is also cleaned in Trombay.

The remaining refineries refine oil imported from abroad.

Major refineries are as follows:

1. I.O.C. Digboi (Assam).

2. H.P.L. Mumbai (Maharashtra).

3. B.P.C.L. Mumbai (Maharashtra)

4. H.P.C.L. Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)

5. I.O.C. Guwahati (Assam)

6. IOC Barauni (Bihar)

7. IOC Koyli (Gujarat)

8. C.R. l. to China (Kerala)

9. M.R.L. Cochin (Kerala)

10. IOC Haldia (West Bengal)

11. B.R.P.L. (Assam)

12. I.O. Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)

13. Karnal (Gurgaon)

14. Goa (Goa)

15. Assam

16. Kota

17. Is in Indore.

18. Reliance Petroleum is a private oil refinery.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

NATURAL GAS

In the present era, the use of gas in place of coal and petroleum is increasing rapidly because it is a highly inflammable fuel without odor and soot.

Compared to coal and mineral oil, the cost of its production and distribution is less.

It does not require much space to store it. The form in which natural gas is obtained.

It is used in the same form.

Natural gas is being used for heating homes, making food, fertiliser, running factories, industries, thermal power plants etc.

Distribution:-

Natural gas is generally found in areas where mineral oil is found.

There are two areas of natural gas production in India:-

1) Terrestrial Area Terrestrial Area-

Under this, gas is produced in Assam, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh.

2) Coastal Area:-

away from sea level

Natural gas is found in the shallow parts of Bombay High, Krishna, Kaveri Basin, Portonoba (Caveri Basin).

Distribution System Of Natural Gas:-

The work of refining and distribution of natural gas in different parts of the country is done by Gas Authority of India Limited.

It was formed in the year 1984.

This company is working on laying gas pipelines and setting up domestic plants in the country.

This company first started M.B.J. Gas pipeline constructed.

6 fertilizer factories through this:

Gas is supplied to four thermal power plants in Uttar Pradesh, one each in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan and three thermal power plants – Kawas (Gujarat), Anna (Rajasthan) and Auraiya (Uttar Pradesh).

This pipeline is the longest underground gas pipeline in the world.

Conservation Of Natural Gas :-

Conservation of natural gas is difficult. It can be stored in cylinders and stored as cooking fuel.

But there is a risk of fire if it is kept for a long time.

Therefore, it is advisable to use natural gas immediately.

Its conservation is facilitated by its excessive consumption in the petrochemical and chemical fertilizer industries.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

NUCLEAR MINERALS

Mineral substances containing radioactive elements are called nuclear minerals.

Such as Uranium, Beryllium, Thorium, Graphite, Antimony, Plutonium, Zirconium etc.

Energy is generated by the disintegration of molecules and atoms in these minerals.

Which is called nuclear energy.

In India, Atomic Energy Board has established nuclear power stations in different parts of the country.

Nuclear power centers have been established at Rawabhata in Kota district of Rajasthan, Kalpakkam near Chennai, Narora in Bulandshahr in Uttar Pradesh and Kankrapara in Gujarat.

Importance Of Nuclear Energy:-

1) India has limited reserves of good quality coal, mineral oil and natural gas for energy. Therefore, we will have to depend on water power and nuclear energy only.

2) Nuclear power stations can be easily established anywhere.

3) Excessive power is obtained from the disintegration of atomic minerals.

4) India has been a leader in the world in peaceful use of nuclear energy in fields like medicine and agriculture.

Protection:-

Seeing the usefulness of atomic mineral, its conservation is very important in India.

Because when the reserves of coal and mineral oil will be exhausted in the near future, then India can fulfill its needs by generating power from nuclear minerals.

Therefore, conservation of atomic minerals is an important need of today.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

Non-conventional Sources Of Energy

Coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.

have been used widely.

Therefore, due to overexploitation of resources, a decrease in the production of these resources started being experienced.

Because all these resources get destroyed once used.

Since the reserves of these resources will be in a certain quantity only.

Therefore, scientists have discovered non-conventional resources of energy.

From which new energy resources are being developed.

Which are as follows:-

WIND ENERGY

Wind Energy Can be used to draw water.

Irrigation of fields is a major necessity in rural areas.

Electricity can also be generated from this.

It is estimated that 2000 MW electricity can be generated using wind.

Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Orissa are suitable states for this.

It is appropriate to install mills only where the wind blows continuously.

Wind energy is not a new source in India.

Indian farmers have been using it in their agricultural work since ancient times.

Today, when electricity generation has started from wind energy, its popularity has also increased among the people of India.

To strengthen wind energy in India, the Central Government is running a Wind Resource Programme.

208 centers have been identified for wind energy projects.

During the year 2002-03, turbines manufactured in the country worth Rs 25 crore have been exported.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

SOLAR ENERGY

Sun is a renewable source of energy.

From this .A large amount of energy is available.

It is a universal tool with huge possibilities.

The development of solar stoves is a remarkable achievement in this context.

Food can be produced from solar energy at almost no cost.

Small and medium scale solar power plants are also being planned for rural areas.

Nowadays, solar energy is being used successfully in cooking, heating water, removing salinity of water, space heating and drying crops.

This is the source of future energy.

Because fossil fuels like coal and mineral oil will be completely exhausted by then.

There are immense possibilities in the field of solar energy in India, notable work has also been done in the field of solar energy by former Prime Minister Late Rajiv Gandhi.

Domestic water heaters with capacity of 50-100 liters to industrial water heaters with capacity up to 2,40,000 liters per day have been installed in the country.

More than 5 lakh solar cookers are being used in the country.

Under the Solar Thermal Energy Program of India 2004, it is proposed to set up a 35 MW solar thermal power system including 140 MW integrated solar-combined cycle power at Mathaniya village in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.

Solar photovoltaic technology has been developed by solar energy which is useful not only for the purposes of lighting, water pumping and telecommunication etc. but also for power plants that smoothly meet the electricity needs of rural, school and health centers etc.

BIOGAS ENERGY 

The energy obtained by rotting and burning cow dung, feces, urine, garbage, waste plants and other organic matter in the absence of air is called biogas energy.

Biogas is rich in methane.

Which is a good type of smokeless fuel.

Its chemical solution is a type of organic fertilizer, from which the best type of manure is prepared.

The energy obtained from biogas is the cheapest and it does not cause any kind of pollution.

At present, about one billion thirty-five crore metric tons of cow dung and animal waste is being obtained every year in India.

Due to which more than 75 percent of the electricity requirements can be met by producing biogas.

production is progressing at a rapid pace in India.

For this reason, more biogas plants are being set up than the set target.

More than 4000 similar biogas plants have been installed in the country, so that biogas energy can play an important role in rural development by ending the energy crisis in villages.

BENEFIT-

1) Biogas provides fuel for kitchen.

2) Compost is made from biogas, which increases the production capacity by two to four times.

3)It does not emit smoke and hence is pollution free.

4) Its waste is also used in fish food for fish farming.

5) It can also light bulbs.

6) By using its compost, harmful bacteria in the fields also die.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

India is not very rich in geothermal energy, yet efforts are being made to utilize the energy of the hot water source of Manikaran located in Himachal Pradesh for geothermal energy.

The energy thus produced is used to run cold storages.

TIDAL ENERGY

This is energy produced from the rising tide of the sea, which is a cheap and never ending resource.

In India, Gujarat (Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Khambhat) and West Bengal (at the mouth of Ganga in Sundar forest area) are affected by ebb and flow.

Electricity generation projects are going on.

Biomass Energy

Like biogas, biomass energy is also a very important cheap, pollution-free, accident-free and universally available gas, traditional energy source.

It is also called bio energy.

This energy can play an important role in meeting the increasing energy needs in rural areas, provided it is properly developed.

Under the National Biomass Programme, a campaign is being run to plant firewood producing plants on waste land.

To obtain biomass energy, electricity is generated by converting plants into gas.

Therefore, the best effort to overcome the energy crisis in developing countries can be made through energy farming, i.e.

energy obtained from organic matter.

HYDROELECTRIC POWER

Hydroelectric energy is created from water.

Water is a never ending resource. Hydroelectric energy has special importance in India.

Hydroelectric power is developing rapidly in India because its production is cheap and it can be used far away from the areas of origin.

In India, electrical energy is generated by Tata Hydropower Scheme in Maharashtra, Payakara Scheme in Tamil Nadu, Maidur Scheme, Pallivasal Scheme in Kerala, Baramulla Scheme in Kashmir, Mandi Scheme in Himachal Pradesh and Ganganahar Grid Scheme in Uttar Pradesh.

Under the five year plans, schemes like Bhakra Nangal, Damodar, Kosi, Hirakud, Tugamdra, Chambal, Rihand etc.

have been completed and many schemes are under construction.

Which is expected to be implemented soon.

ENERGY FROM URBAN WASTE

A plant is functioning on a trial basis in Delhi city to obtain energy from garbage in the form of solid materials.

It produces 4 MW of energy per year.

Such power plants are being set up in many other cities of the country.

POWER PLANTS RUNNING ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE:-

There are many factories in India to make sugar from sugarcane.

During the sugarcane crushing season, 2000 MW additional electricity can be generated from bagasse in these factories.

A factory can generate 10 MW power, out of which 4 MW power can be used to meet the personal needs of the factory.

The remaining 6 MW electricity can be sent to the local grid to irrigate the fields.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES

Energy resources are limited. Which are being used continuously.

Therefore their conservation is very important.

Coal mines should be protected from flood water.

Caution should be taken while digging coal.

All coal should be mined from the mines. It should be protected from rain and moisture.

Mineral oil reserves are very limited.

Therefore, they should be used only for urgent purposes.

Exploration should be done to obtain mineral oil from the sedimentary rock areas of the country and from under the seabed.

It is a flammable substance.

Therefore, measures should be taken to protect it from fire.

The wastage caused while extracting from underground and seabed should be stopped.

Tankers and pipelines transporting oil should also be checked from time to time.

Conservation of natural gas is extremely difficult.

Therefore, it is advisable to use them immediately.

Considering the utility of nuclear minerals, there is a great need for their conservation in India.

It is necessary to develop nuclear power also for our security.

( Energy resources renewable and nonrenewable )

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