Complex sentence, definition, types, examples

COMPLEX SENTENCES (WITH NON-FINITE CLAUSES)

Complex sentence –

A complex sentence consists of one main clause and one or more subordinate clause connected by sub-ordinationg conjunction.

( Complex sentence )

Non-finite clause को समझने से पहले हम पुनः एक बार finite clause के बारे में द चर्चा करेंगे –

(Complex sentence)

(1) Finite Clause –

A Finite clause is a clause whose Verb Element is Finite Verb phrase.

[ अर्थात् Finite clause उस Clause को कहते हैं, जिसमें एक Finite Verb हो।]

Finite Verb की चर्चा हम पहले कर चुके हैं अर्थात जो verb, subject के साथ अपने को agree करे तथा उसके person व number के अनुसार बदले व उसमें Tense व mood के कारण अन्तर आये Finite verb कहलाती है।

जिन clauses में finite verbs हों उन्हें finite clauses कहते हैं।

This is the boy whose father is a collector.

यहाँ पर (i) This is the boy तथा (ii) Whose father is a collector.

दोनों Finite clauses हैं, क्योंकि उनमें is verb का प्रयोग हुआ है, जो कि Finite verb है तथा उसमें subject a predicate हैं।

( Complex sentence )

(2) Non-finite Clause –

A Non-finite clause is a clause whose Verb Element is a Non-finite Verb phrase.

[अर्थात् एक Non-finite clause उस clause को कहते हैं। जिसमें केवल Non-finite verb हो ।]

What is Non-finite Verb?

The non-finite forms of verbs are the infinitive [to(call)], the – ing participle (calling) and the – ed participle (called).

[अर्थात् Non-finite verb क्रिया के infinitive (अर्थात् verb के मूल रूप के पहले to लगाकर या बिना to के लिखना);

जैसे—to call, call;

Present participle अर्थात् verb में ing जोड़कर लिखना; जैसे— to calling तथा

past participle अर्थात् verb का third form लिखना called ही Non-finite verb के रूप हैं।]

Examples –

Group A Group B
Finite Verb Phrase  Non-finite Verb Phrase
1. He smokes heavily. 1. To smoke like that must be dangerous.
2. He is working. 2. I found him working.
3. He had been offended before. 3. Having been offended before he was sensitive.

Non finite verb वह होती है, जिसका कोई subject नहीं होता, न ही वह किसी tense में होती है, ये तीन हैं:

(1) Infinitive,

(2) Gerund,

(3) Participles (Present and Past).

Note- Traditional grammar sentences में इस प्रकार बने simple sentences ही माना जाता है तथा non-finite clause को phrase मानते हैं।

किन्तु Modern grammar में इनको non-finite clause माना जाता है, क्योंकि ये finite clause से ही infinitive, participle व gerund की सहायता से कुछ परिवर्तन करके प्राप्त होते हैं।

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FINITE AND NON-FINITE CLAUSES

The finite clause contains a subject as well as predicate, except in the case of commands and ellipses, whereas non-finite clause can be constructed without a subject.

[Finite clause में अपना subject तथा predicate होता है। केवल Imperative sentences व जहाँ पर एक ही subject से दोनों Predicate का काम चलाया जाय या जहाँ पर एक ही predicate से दो subjects का काम चलाया जाय, को छोड़कर, जबकि Non-finite clause को बिना subject के बनाया जा सकता है ।।

Examples-

1. We met the men.

They were sitting under a tree.

Finite Clause – We met the men who were sitting under a tree.

Non-finite Clause – We met the men sitting under a tree.

2. The oride and groom looked smart.

They were dressed beautifully.

Finite Clause – The bride and groom who were dressed beautifully looked

Non-finite Clause – The bride and groom dressed beautifully looked smart.

3. He will get a berth.

It is almost certain.

Finite-  That he will get a berth is almost certain.

Non-Finite – (a) His getting a berth is almost certain.

(b) For him to get a berth is almost certain.

(complex-sentence)

1. THE INFINITIVE

Definition –

Infinitive is a kind of noun with certain features of the verb,

especially that of taking an object (when the verb is transitive) and adverbial qualities.

This is the first form of verb used with or without to.

In short, the infinitive is a Verb-Noun

अर्थात् Infinitive एक प्रकार का Noun है, जिसमें कुछ विशेषताएँ verb की, विशेषकर उस समय जब उसका object हो (जब verb सकर्मक हो) तथा उसमें क्रिया विशेषण के गुण होते हैं।

यह क्रिया का मूल रूप है, जो to के साथ अथवा उसके बिना प्रयुक्त होता है।

संक्षेप में Infinitive, verb तथा Noun के गुणों से युक्त रहता है।

Examples –

1. To err is human.

Infinitive (to err) is क्रिया का subject (कर्ता) है।

2. Children love to play.

Infinitive (to play) noun के समान verb love का कर्म (object) है।

3. To respect our elders is our duty.

Infinitive (to respect) is क्रिया का subject है।

4. He accepted to obey his order.

Infinitive (to obey) far accepted का object है।

5. He wishes to become rich overnight.

•Infinitive (to become) noun के समान wish क्रिया का कर्म object लेता है और एक Adverbial Phrase से modified होता है।

Infinitives without “To’

निम्न परिस्थितियों में Infinitive के साथ ‘to’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता है

She must attend the function or she is asked/commanded to attend the function. (निर्देश तथा आज्ञा के रूप में)

(1) कुछ निश्चित Verbs के बाद जैसे – bid, let, make, need, dare, see, hear के बाद Infinitive के साथ ‘to’ नहीं जोड़ते। जैसे –

(a) Let him go.

(b) Bid him do this.

(c) I heard him shout.

(d) You need not wait.

(e) She does not speak this.gbed

(2) Rather than, Would rather, sooner than, had better तथा had rather के बाद भी Infinitive के साथ to का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता।

For example –

I would rather die than beg.

You had better leave this place.

He should rather go home than stay here.

I had rather meet him.

Uses of the Infinitive

The infinitive एक ऐसी क्रिया है, जो क्रिया के अतिरिक्त noun, adjective और adverb का काम करता है।

(1) As a Noun –

To err is human.

Infinitive का प्रयोग जब Noun की तरह किया जाता है तो उसको (1) Subject of a verb (2) Object of a Transitive verb (3) Complement of a verb (4) Object of a preposition तथा (5) an objective complement के रूप में प्रयोग किया जा सकता है।

उपर्युक्त उदाहरण में To err को Subject की तरह प्रयोग किया गया है।

(2). As an Adjective –

This is not the time to play.

यहाँ पर to play time को qualify करता है।

(3) As an Adverb-

We eat to live.

यहाँ पर to live Verb – ‘eat’ को modify करता है।

(4) To Qualify a Sentence –

To tell the truth, he is not a good boy.

यहां पर to tell the truth, पूरे Sentence ‘he is not a good boy’ को qualify करता है।

(5) Infinitive-Too-to तथा So that –

जब Too + adjective/adverb + to Form का प्रयोग किया गया हो तो उसे हम So that का use करके Complex में बदल सकते हैं।

इस तरह Non-finite clause को Finite Clause में बदलने से Simple sentence, complex sentence में बदल जाता है।

Examples – 

1. The box is too heavy to lift.

The box is so heavy that it cannot be lifted.

2. The tea is too hot for me to drink.

The tea is so hot that I cannot drink it.

3. He spoke too fast to be followed.

He spoke so fast that he could not be followed.

हम इस प्रकार का परिवर्तन करने के लिए Too के स्थान पर so रखकर तथा उसके बाद adjective/adverb रखते हैं फिर to के स्थान पर that रखकर present tense में cannot तथा past tense में could not का प्रयोग करते हैं।

इसके ठीक विपरीत हम so that के स्थान पर too –  to का प्रयोग करके finite clause को Non-finite clause में बदल सकते हैं।

Examples –

He is so young that he cannot go to school.

He is too young to go to school.

यहाँ पर so के साथ पर too रखकर adjective / adverb रखते हैं फिर that के स्थान पर to रखकर verb का first form रखते हैं। शेष शब्दों को हटा देते हैं।

जैसे-  he cannot.

Exercise 1

Combine the following pairs of sentences by using too-to, for-to infinitive to form complex sentences:

Ex. (a) The grapes were very sour.

(b) We couldn’t eat them.

The grapes were too sour for us to eat.

1. (a) He was very weak.

(b) He could not walk.

2. (a) You are very old.

(b) You cannot run a race.

3. (a) The lesson is very difficult.

(b) We cannot understand it. (Use for us)

4. (a) This news is very good.

(b) It cannot be true.

5. (a) Tom is very poor.

(b) Tom cannot pay his fees.

6. (a) She is very strong.

(b) She can lift this box. (Use strong enough to)

7. (a) The mangoes are very sour.

(b) Nobody can eat them.

Ans.

1. He was too weak to walk.

2. You are too old to run a race.

3. The lesson is too difficult for us to understand.

4. This news is too good to be true.

5. Tom is too poor to pay his fees.

6. She is strong enough to lift this box.

7. The mangoes are too sour to eat.

Exercise 2

Combine the following pairs of sentences –

Ex.

(a) He has a large family.

(b) He must provide for them.

He has a large family to provide for

1. My brother was very much delighted. He has heard of my success.

2. I will go to market. I will buy dresses.

3. It is delightful. I can see the snowy mountains.

4. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it. [Begin (I am not afraid to)]

5. Mr. Sahu writes stories. It is his hobby.

6. I have a keen desire. I want to see you again.

7. He went to Delhi. His object was to see the Red Fort.

8. His goats and cows were sold. He had to pay debt.

Ans.

1. My brother was very much delighted to hear of my success.

2. I will go to market to buy dresses .

3. It is delightful to see the snowy mountains.

4. I am not afraid to speak the truth.

5. To write stories is Mr. Sahu’s hobby.

or

It is Mr. Sahu’s hobby to write stories.

6. I have a keen desire to see you again.

7. He went to Delhi to see the Red Fort.

8. His goats and cows were sold to pay debt.

Exercise 3

Rewrite the following sentences using introductory ‘it’ – 

[It का उपयोग is /was के पहले होता है।]

Ex. To smoke much is injurious for health.

It is injurious for health to smoke much.

1. To get radium is not easy.

2. To see him there is surprising.

3. To pull the chain in a train is a crime.

4 To speak sweetly is an art.

5. To please everybody is difficult.

Ans.

1. It is not easy to get radium.

2. It is surprising to see him there.

33. It is a crime to pull the chain in a train.

4. It is an art to speak sweetly.

5. It is difficult to please everybody.

( complex-sentence)

2. THE GERUND

(Verb First form + ing)

A Gerund is that form of the verb which ends in – ing and has the force of a noun and a verb.

[Gerund verb की first form में ing जोड़कर बनाया जाता है तथा वह Verb + Noun का कार्य करता है।]

जैसे –

Read + ing = Reading

I like reading poetry.

Gerund का प्रयोग Noun के समान किया जा सकता है। उपर्युक्त उदाहरण में reading object के रूप में प्रयोग हुआ है। अत: Noun के रूप में प्रयोग हुआ है।

निम्न उदाहरणों में Noun व Verb दोनों की तरह प्रयोग हुआ है।

(1) Giving is better than receiving.

(2) Seeing is believing.

चूँकि Gerund में Noun व Verb दोनों के गुण होते हैं अतः हम उसे Verbal Noun कह सकते हैं।

(1) Gerund Noun है अतः इसके पहले article ‘the’ का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है।

जैसे –

The writings of Shakespeare rank very high in English.

(2) इसके साथ possessive case लगता है। जैसे –

I do not like your talking too much.

(3) जब किसी Gerund को शुद्ध Noun बनाना हो तो उसके पहले the तथा बाद में of लगाते हैं।

For example –

The hunting of Tiger is a sport.

(4) कभी-कभी Gerund + Noun आये तो वह Adjective का काम करता है। ऐसी स्थिति में for लुप्त रहता है। जैसे –

I have a walking stick.

यहाँ पर Walking Stick का अर्थ (a stick that walks) चलने वाली छड़ी नहीं है, बल्कि ऐसी छड़ी जिसके सहारे चला जाय (a stick for walking) है।

Other examples –

1. Tom bought a dining table.

2. Asha Wastes hours before a looking glass

3. I have no reading room .

उपर्युक्त से निम्न तात्पर्य है –

1. A dining table = A table for dining.

2. A looking glass = A glass for looking in.

3. A reading room = a room for reading.

इस प्रकार के Gerunds को (V+ing + Noun compound word) को कुछ (N.)

• Grammarians (व्याकरण वेत्ता) Present participle की श्रेणी में रखते हैं क्योंकि परवर्ती (following) संज्ञा (Noun) की विशेषता बताते हैं अर्थात् Adjective (विशेषण) का कार्य करते हैं।

(5) Infinitive के समान ही Gerund का प्रयोग भी Noun के समान हो सकता है। कुछ Verbs ऐसी हैं, जिनके साथ infinitive का प्रयोग होता है तथा कुछ ऐसी verbs हैं, जिनके Gerund का तथा कुछ verbs के साथ infinitive तथा Gerund दोनों को Object के रूप में प्रयोग कर सकते हैं।

(A) वे Verbs जिनके साथ Object के रूप में हमेशा Infinitive का प्रयोग होता है।

For example – He agreed to wait.

• अन्य verbs जिनके साथ हमेशा infinitive का प्रयोग होता है

Ask, attempt, choose, claim, consent, decide, deserve, determine, expect hope, learn, long, Manage, mean, offer, pretend, fail, hesitate, neglect, prepare refuse, seem, try, vow.

(B) कुछ ऐसे Verbs जिनके साथ Object के रूप में हमेशा Gerund का प्रयोग होता है।

Ex. – I don’t mind your smoking here.

Other Verbs

Acknowledge, admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, favour, finish, help, keep, mind, miss, postpone, practice, stop, suggest.

Ex-(1) Tom acknowledged making a mistake.

(2) Anita admitted telling a lie.

(3) Asha avoided seeing the principal.

(4) Tom considered approaching the Prime Minister.

(5) He denied using force.

(C) कुछ ऐसे Verb हैं जिनके साथ Object के रूप में Infinitive व Gerund दोनों आ सकते हैं। जैसे

(i) I hate telling a lie.

Or

(ii) I hate to tell a lie.

इन प्रयोगों का अर्थ भिन्न हो सकता है। जैसे –

(i) He stopped to smoke. (तात्कालिक) – उस समय धूम्रपान बन्द कर देना।

(ii) He stopped smoking. (सदैव के लिए)- धूम्रपान की आदत हो छोड़ देना।

Other Verbs – Can’t bear, begin, cease, continue, dislike, fear, forget, hale intend, like, love, mean, neglect, prefer, propose, recollect, regret, remember, start try.

Exercise 4

Fill in the blanks with the correct form (gerund or infinitive) of the verb given in the brackets:

1. I hope…….. this time. (pass)

2. I never meant……….his order. (disobey)

3. Please finish……….. I don’t mind……… (Eat, wait)

4. He managed……… the station in time. (reach)

5. Would you mind………. a little ? (move)

Ans.

1. I hope to pass this time.

2. I never meant disobeying him.

Or

I never meant to disobey him.

3. Please finish eating. I don’t mind waiting.

4. He managed to reach the station.

5. Would you mind moving a little.

Exercise 5

Combine the pairs of sentences with the help of Gerund into a complex sentence turning one of them into a non-finite clause and putting preposition before it:

Ex. (a) Anil drinks milk..

(b) Then Anil goes to bed.

Anil drinks milk before going to bed.

1. (a) I sell books.

(b) I earn my living that way.(by)

2. (a) Asha was punished.

(b) She was late for school.(for being)

3.(a) Arun washed his hands.

(b) Then he sat down for his meal.(after)

4. (a) The thief saw the policeman.

(b) The thief began to run.(after)

5.(a) Sunita painted the best picture.

(b) She won a prize for it.(for)

6. (a) He was praised by all.

(b) He won a prize.(for)

7. (a) I don’t like you.

(b) You abuse your parents.( Your abusing)

8. (a) I have no objection.

(b) you can consult him.(to consulting)

9. (a) The teacher punished the boy.

(b) He rang the bell.

10. (a) India became free in 1947.

(b) She is making progress after that. (After)

Ans.

1. I earn my living by selling books.

2. Asha was punished for being late for school.

3.Arun sat down for his meals after washing his heads.

4.The thief began to run after seeing the policeman.

5.Sunita got a prize for painting the best picture.

6.He was praised by all for winning a prize.

7. I don’t like your abusing your parents.

8. I have no objection to consulting him.

9.The teacher punished the boy for ringing the bell.

10.India is making progress after becoming free in 1947.

( complex-sentence )

3. PARTICIPLES

(ing and -ed form)

A participle is a word which is partly a verb and partly an adjective.

[ अर्थात् participles वे शब्द हैं जो verb एवं adjective दोनों का काम करें। इन्हें हम verbal adjective भी कह सकते हैं।]

For example –

Hearing the noise the child woke up.

यहाँ पर hearing, the noise को qualify करता है। साथ ही verb का काम भी करता है। अत: participle है।

Kinds of Participles:

Participles दो प्रकार के होते हैं

(1) Present Participle.

(2) Past Participle.

(1) Present Participle—

जब किसी verb के first form के साथ ing जोड़कर जो शब्द बनाया जाता है और वह adjective का काम करता है तो उसे present participles कहते हैं।

जैसे –

Read + ing = Reading.

(2) Past Participle—

किसी verb के अन्त में ed, en, t, d, n को जोड़कर past participle बनाते हैं।

For example

(1) Learn + ed = Learned.

(2) Burn+t = Burnt.

(3) Drive + n = Driven.

(4) Deceive + d = Deceived.

Uses of Present Participles:

(1) Participles noun pronoun qualify a fer attributively एवं Predicatively किया जा सकता है। यह adjective का अर्थ रखता है।

(a) A rolling stone gathers no mass.(Attributively)

(b) He kept me waiting.(Predicatively)

(2) जब दो actions एक के बाद एक हो तथा एक ही Subject से सम्बन्धित हों तो पहले बले कार्य को present participle के द्वारा व्यक्त करते हैं। जैसे-

Seeing the policeman, the theif ran away.

यहाँ पर (i) The thief saw the policeman तथा (ii) The thief ran away दो कार्य हैं।

कर्ता एक ही है The thief चोर ने Policeman को देखने का कार्य पहले किया है। अतः उसको Seeing the policeman में बदल दिया है।

(3) जब participle व main clause के कर्ता अलग-अलग हों, तब participle उस Noun या pronoun के बाद आता है जो उसका subject है। जैसे –

The weather being fine, we decided to go for a walk.

यहाँ पर the weather के बाद हमने being को रखा है।

(4) The perfect participle अर्थात् Having + the past participle of verb यह बताने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है कि पहले वाला कार्य समाप्त हो चुका है तथा बाद वाला कार्य प्रारम्भ होता है। जैसे

Having witnessed the accident, he reported to the police.

FORM = (Having + Past Participle of Verb.)

Uses of Past Participles:

Past participles के भी present participle जैसे कार्य हैं। जैसे—

(1) His spoken English is much better than written English.(As an adjective)

उपर्युक्त उदाहरण में Spoken एवं Written English के adjective के रूप में कार्य करते हैं।

(2) Shot by an arrow, the bird fell to the ground.

उपर्युक्त उदाहरण में दो कार्य (actions) हैं, जिनमें से पहले कार्य को past participle द्वारा व्यक्त किया गया है।

(3) (a) He had his hair cut.

(b) The teacher found all the chairs damaged.

उपर्युक्त उदाहरणों में Past participle का प्रयोग object complement के रूप में हुआ है।

(4) (a) They became tired.

(b) We felt bored.

उपर्युक्त उदाहरणों में past participle का प्रयोग subject complement के रूप में हुआ है।

Exercise 6

Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using participles, making one of the sentence into a non-finite clause :

Ex. 1. (a) Bhim raised his club. (b) He struck a heavy blow.

Raising his club, Bhim struck a heavy blow.

2. (a) She fed the cow. (b) Then she milked her.

Having fed the cow, she milked her.

1. (a) I felt pity for the beggar.

(b) I gave him some money.

2. (a) The milk was boiling.

(b) The milk was poured into the glass.

3. (a) The table was removed from the class.

(b) The table was broken.

4. (a) Ajay saw the lion.

(b) Ajay was wandering in the jungle.

5. (a) The girl went out of the room.

(b) The girl was laughing.

Ans.

1. Feeling pity for the beggar I gave him some money.

2. The milk being boiled was poured into the glass.

3. The table removed from the class was broken.

4. wandering in the jungle Ajay saw the lion.

5. The girl went out of the roon laughing.

Exercise 7

Join the following pairs of sentences using Present Perfect participle (Having + 3rd form):

Ex. (a) He failed several times. (b) He left the school.

Having failed several times he left the school.

1. (a) The hen laid the eggs.

(b) The hen sat down to hatch them.

2. (a) He swam across the river.

(b) He felt tired.

3. (a) He spent all his money.

(b) He is sad now.

4. (a) They had been tired by the journey.

(b) They decided to take rest there.

5. (a) The labourer worked all day.

(b) He left to take complete rest.

Ans.

1. Having laid the eggs the hen sat down to hatch them.

2. Having swam across the river he felt tired.

3. Having spent all his money he is sad now.

4. Having been tired by the journey they decided to take rest there.

5. Having worked all day the labourer left to take complete rest.

( complex-sentence)

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